Cardo Maximus fra Italica, Spanien

Cardo Maximus fra Italica, Spanien


Augusta Emerita

Augusta Emerita, også kaldet Emerita Augusta, [1] var en romersk Colonia grundlagt i 25 f.Kr. i dagens Mérida, Spanien. Byen blev grundlagt af den romerske kejser Augustus for at genbosætte Emeriti -soldater fra veteranlegionerne i de kantabriske krige, disse er Legio V Alaudae, Legio X Gemina og muligvis Legio XX Valeria Victrix. [ citat nødvendig ] Byen var hovedstad i den romerske provins Lusitania og var en af ​​de største i Hispania med et areal på over 20.000 kvadratkilometer. Det havde tre akvædukter og to fora. [2]

Byen lå ved krydset mellem flere vigtige ruter. Det sad nær en krydsning af Guadiana -floden. Romerske veje forbandt byen vest til Felicitas Julia Olisippo (Lissabon), syd til Hispalis (Sevilla), nordvest til guldminearealet og til Corduba (Córdoba) og Toletum (Toledo). [2]

I dag er Mérida arkæologiske ensemble er et af de største og mest omfattende arkæologiske steder i Spanien og et UNESCO World Heritage Site siden 1993. [3]


Itálica, en romersk by 10 minutter fra Sevilla

Vidste du, at du et skridt væk fra Sevilla har en romersk by at opdage? Itálica var ikke hvilken som helst by inden for imperiet. Italica var en vigtig by, hvor Trajan og Adriano, de to Sevillian kejsere i det antikke Rom, blev født.

Itálica var den første by, som Romerriget grundlagde uden for italiensk område, omkring 206 f.Kr.. Og dens navn stammer netop fra oprindelsen af ​​de første indbyggere.

Blandt dens hovedattraktioner skiller mosaikken, der prydede gulvene i de mest luksuriøse huse, sig ud. Nogle af dem har nået vore dage i en storslået bevaringstilstand og er af en imponerende kunstnerisk kvalitet. Du kan ikke forlade Itálica uden at se Fuglenes mosaik, Det Neptun mosaik, og Planetarisk mosaik. Sidstnævnte viser de syv planetariske guddommeligheder, der falder sammen med de romerske dage i ugen.

Andre must-sees er Traianeum, House of Exedra, de varme kilder og uden tvivl Amfiteater.

Fra sin oprindelse blev Itálica konsolideret som en af ​​de første kerner af den aristokratiske befolkning i Hispania. Byens indretning og betydningen af ​​dets bygninger er et storslået eksempel på dette smukke Sevilla -vagttårn.

Det cardo maximus er Italica's vigtigste måde. Overvej det fra toppen af ​​amfiteatret!

Itálica Amfiteater var den fjerde i kapacitet af imperiet og blev bygget på kejser Hadrians tid. Det anslås, at dets stande kan rumme mellem 25.000 og 30.000 mennesker.

I amfiteatret var der hovedsageligt gladiator -sammenstød og dyrekampe.

For nylig har Itálica Amphitheatre været en af ​​de Sevillian -stadier i Game of Thrones -serien.

I serien Game of Thrones blev Italica Amphitheatre til "Dragonpit" i resultatet af den syvende seaso


PORTFOLIO

Cardo Maximus. Dette rektangulære peristylium fra House of Exedra. De store søjler understøttede en anden etage. Domusen dækkede et areal på 3.000 kvadratmeter og var udelukkende bygget af murstenbeton. De varme termiske bade i Neptuns hus.

Neptuns hus med geometriske og figurative mosaikker. Domusen blev opkaldt efter en mosaik, der skildrer Neptun og vanddyr. Neptunmosaikken i Neptuns hus. Neptun, havets gud med sin trefanger. Mosaikken er omgivet af en bred kant, der er dekoreret med nilotiske scener med krokodiller, en flodhest, et palme og flere pygmæer, der kæmper ibiser. Labyrintmosaikken i Neptuns hus.

Fuglenes Hus er en stor bolig udstyret med en god mængde mosaikker af høj kvalitet. En af dem, Bird Mosaic, gav sit navn til huset. Fuglemosaikken består af et centralt panel omgivet af 35 små firkanter, der repræsenterer forskellige fuglearter. Detalje af fuglemosaikken bestående af et centralt panel omgivet af 35 små firkanter, der repræsenterer forskellige fuglearter. Detalje af fuglemosaikken bestående af et centralt panel omgivet af 35 små firkanter, der repræsenterer forskellige fuglearter. Fuglenes Hus. Åben terrasse med et springvand i fuglenes hus. Mosaikdetalje med leder af Medusa i fuglenes hus. Huset Hylas. Midterpanelet (emblemer) i mosaikken viser Hercules og hans ledsager og elsker Hylas, der er udstillet i det arkæologiske museum i Sevilla. Planetariumets hus, såkaldt på grund af mosaikken, der brolagte et af dets værelser. Mosaikgulve i Planetariets hus. Mosaik med buster af planetguderne, der gav deres navne til ugens dage i Planetariums hus. I centrum er Venus (fredag). Mod uret fra bundens midte er Jupiter (torsdag), Saturn (lørdag), Helios eller Sol (søndag), Luna eller Selene (mandag), Mars (tirsdag) og Merkur (onsdag). Grundlaget for templet i Trajan (Traianeum). Tempelområdet bestod af en quadriporticus omkring et octastyle korintisk podietempel og alter. Grundlaget for templet i Trajan (Traianeum).

Hadrianic Baths beliggende i den midtvestlige del af Nova Urbs. Hadrianic Baths viser konstruktionsteknikker, der stammer fra Hadrians tid og blyrør, der bærer frimærker, der nævner Hadrian. Amfiteatret var et af de største i imperiet, 160 x 137 m. Det var bygget af store blokke af hugget sten og mursten, der var vendt mod marmor og kunne rumme omkring 25.000 tilskuere. Meget af amfiteatrets cavea er bevaret med sine korridorer og vomitoria stadig brugbare, og arenaens underjordiske passager er i perfekt stand. Amfiteaterets velbevarede korridorer. Bilplade med indgraverede fodaftryk ved indgangen til det romerske amfiteater. Teatret bygget på den gamle romerske by, Vetus Urbs. Byggeriet begyndte i løbet af Augustus. Det blev senere ændret mellem 60 og 80 e.Kr. Hadrian berigede det med marmorskulpturer.


Hvad du kan se i dag

Heldigvis har det 25.000-personers amfiteater, som var et af de største i Romerriget, delvis overlevet (to etager ud af tre). Den centrale pit blev brugt til dyrebure (bjørne og vildsvin) under gladiatorkampe. I 2016 blev det brugt som optagelsessted for Game of Thrones (se nedenfor).

Ud over dette, på og omkring den brede hovedgade eller Cardus Maximus, er omkring fem store huse af velstående familier blevet udgravet, nogle med velbevarede, farverige mosaikker, herunder gulve med udsøgt design af fugle, Neptun og planeterne. Disse palæer målte op til 15.000 m2-

Du kan også se resterne af Traianeum, kejser Trajans tempel, Termas Menores og Mayores (bade) og det sofistikerede kloaksystem, der normalt ses i større byer.

Også et besøg værd er Cotidiana Vitae, et besøgscenter i romersk tema i Santiponce, med en rekonstruktion af et romersk hus fra det 2. århundrede e.Kr., komplet med soveværelser og køkken, en plan for, hvordan Italica ville have set ud, og en audiovisuel præsentation, der viser opførelse af den romerske by. Plaza de la Constitucion 11, Santiponce.


DE ROMANSKE PROVINSERNES KUNST

Fragment af Tabula Peutingeriana, med byen Rom i midten (Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Hofburg, Wien).

Mod midten af ​​det andet århundrede e.Kr. havde den romerske kejserlige regering dækket imperiet med et perfekt netværk af veje bygget med polygonale sten. En ret trofast middelalderlig kopi af et kort over Romerriget er bevaret. Dette kort omfattede mange af de større byer og endda placeringen af ​​nogle vandrehjem. Dette kort er kendt som “Peutinger Table ” eller “Tabula Peutingeriana“.

Imperiets store maritime centre havde ligesom havnen i Ostia et veludviklet gadesystem plus kornmagasiner eller lagre til opbevaring af korn, olie og vin. Disse havnebyer havde også templer for alle de religioner, der praktiseres i imperiet, samt steder til underholdning for købmænd, der boede der, og for udlændinge, der kom fra andre provinser for at handle. Ostia var Rom ’s vigtigste havn og et vigtigt handelscenter specielt med Africa Puteoli, ved Napolibugten, var ansvarlig for handelen med Alexandria Brindisi, i det sydlige Italien, var snarere en militær- og skibshavn for handelen med Grækenland og Østen.

De store romerske veje førte til Germania og Gallien ved at krydse Alperne, og derfra førte de til Storbritannien og Spanien. I Spanien og Gallien følger mange eksisterende moderne veje det samme layout af de romerske veje, som generelt blev sporet efter lige linjer uanset de hårde skråninger, sumpede områder -som krævede en enorm teknisk indsats-, floder -for hvilke de byggede store broer-, og endda tunneler.

Alcántara-broen, ved Tagus-floden (Alcántara, Spanien), 104-106 e.Kr. Pont Julien (eller Julian Bridge), ved Calavon, sydøst for Frankrig, 3 fvt.

Mange broer fra Den Iberiske Halvø er af romersk oprindelse og har et afrundet/cirkulært layout mod flodmundingen og et kilet layout mod opstrømsiden. Alcantara -broen har ved sin indgang et lille tempel dedikeret til den guddommelige bro. Denne gigantiske bro viser elegance af linjer og er perfekt vandret i modsætning til de fleste romerske broer, der har en buet profil (fra midten gik de ned til hver enkelt af flodbredderne).

Pont du Gard (eller Gard-broen), ved Gardon-floden, Vers-Pont-du-Gard nær Remoulins, Sydfrankrig, ca. 40-60 e.Kr. Akvedukten i Segovia, (Spanien), ca. 1. århundrede e.Kr.

De romerske akvædukter var kolossale ingeniørværker, der lignede broer. En af dem, Pont-du-Gard-akvedukten i Provence, er som en bro, der omfatter tre niveauer af buer, hvor vandet løber på den højere kanal. I Spanien er Segovia -akvedukten på tre niveauer næsten intakt, og der er stadig kolossale rester af det, der må have været den største af alle romerske akvædukter: Merida -akvædukten fra det femte århundrede e.Kr. Som et eksempel på en to -niveau romersk akvædukt er akvædukten i Tarragona. Romerske akvædukter kan også findes i provinserne i Afrika.

Akvedukten i Merida eller Acueducto de los Milagros (miraklenes akvedukt), Mérida, Spanien, ca. 1. århundrede e.Kr. Zaghouan-akvedukten eller akvedukten i Hadrian, i Tunesien (Afrika), 100-199 e.Kr.

I Rom såvel som i dets provinser plejede byportene at være flankeret af to forsvarstårne. Disse porte blev også betragtet som halvhellige bygninger, og deres placeringer blev præcist angivet i den såkaldte pomerium eller vægområde. I nogle strategiske byer havde dørene til disse vægge kolossale dimensioner, den berømte Porta Nigra i Trier (Tyskland) har tre niveauer af portikoer. I Spanien har mange byer stadig deres romerske porte og mure, selvom de blev ændret og pyntet i middelalderen. Væggene blev undertiden afbrudt af firkantede eller runde tårne ​​som i Lugo. Der er også store rester af disse romerske mure i Tarragona, Leon, Avila, Toledo, Cordoba og Merida.

Porta Nigra (eller Black Gate), i Trier, Tyskland, 186-200 e.Kr. Gamle romerske vej “Cardo ” i Petra, Jordan.

Det indre af en romersk by var generelt urbaniseret i henhold til det gamle kursivmønster, der pålagde to hovedveje: cardo*(en nord-syd-orienteret gade) og decumanus* (en øst-vest gade), som skal krydse i rette vinkler. I krydset mellem disse to hovedgader blev forummet eller hovedtorvet bygget ofte med arkader. Forummet omfattede basilikaen, hovedtemplet og butikker omgivet det. Det mest kendte eksempel på et forum fra en lille romersk by er Pompeji. Normalt i hver ende af forummet var en triumfbue, der fungerede som en indgangsdør til den store monumentale plads. Timgad, en afrikansk by grundlagt af Trajanus, har de bedst bevarede rester af en romersk by efter Pompeji. Udover Forum -templet havde en romersk by tidligere andre templer dedikeret til mindre guddommeligheder: Pompeji havde templer for Apollo, Isis, Merkur og Aesculapius.

Fly fra den gamle romerske by Lucca, der viser de vigtigste Cardus- og Decumanus -veje. Forum i Pompeji. Triumfbuen i Trajan inden for ruinerne af den romerske by Timgad.

Sekundære gader var parallelle med begge via cardo og via decumanus hvilket giver byens layout et ternet udseende. Dette net var også typisk i de militærlejre, der gav oprindelse til mange byer som León, i Spanien og engelske byer, hvis navne ender på –cester en korruption for latinerne castra* hvilket betyder bygninger eller grunde, der er forbeholdt eller konstrueret til at blive brugt som militær forsvarsposition.

Fly fra den romerske militærlejr eller castra af Inchtuthil i Skotland.

Et uundværligt element i en romersk provinsby var amfiteatret. Nogle amfiteaterrester i de afrikanske provinser er kolossale. Der er også ruiner af romerske amfiteatre i Nimes og Arles (Provence), Padua og Verona (Italien), Pola (Dalmatien), El-Djem (Afrika) …

Arenaen i Nîmes, ca. 70 e.Kr. (Sydfrankrig).

Af alle romerske amfiteatre, der er bevaret den dag i dag, er det i Pompeji uden tvivl de ældste mange inskriptioner, der henviser til ham, afslører, at det var kendt med navnet espectaculo (underholdning). Showerne spillet i et romersk amfiteater lignede meget vores populære festligheder i dag, men gigantisk forstørrede og understregede dets brutale karakter. Gamle romere bifaldte blodsudgydelse. Gladiatorkampene, der blev begejstret af folkemængderne, har deres oprindelse i etruskernes begravelsesspil.

Amfiteatret i Pompeji, det ældste overlevende romerske amfiteater, ca. 80 f.Kr. Interiør i amfiteatret i Pompeji.

Ud over amfiteatret havde de fleste af de romerske byer et teater. Som et eksempel på det bedst bevarede romerske teater er Orange i Gallien. Der er også Aspendos teater i Lilleasien, Bosra, Syrien, Timgad og Thugga i Afrika og teatrene Mérida, Ronda og Sagunto i Spanien.

Orange -teatret, i Orange, Sydfrankrig, begyndelsen af ​​det 1. århundrede e.Kr.

Et andet vigtigt element i en romersk by var de offentlige bade som dem, der findes i Pompeji og Timgad, eller badene i Bath i England, som stadig viser ruiner af de gamle romerske bade.

Forum -badeene i Pompeji. The Roman Baths, at Bath, Somerset, South West England, ca. 60 e.Kr. Bygningen over kolonnebasernes niveau er en senere konstruktion og var ikke en del af den romerske bygning. Rekonstruktion af Trajan Trophy i Adamclisi, (Rumænien), ca. 109 e.Kr.

En meget karakteristisk type af en romersk by, noget forskellig fra provinserne, var de befæstede lejre for de romerske legioner, som også blev urbaniseret efter en ret regelmæssig plan. Disse byer var mere eller mindre firkantede, med grube og mure, og deres gader havde logi til soldater med de større lokaler forbeholdt højtstående embedsmænd i Praetorium. Legionerne havde også deres eksklusive kunstnere og viste en forkærlighed for mindesmærkebygninger. Det mest kunstnerisk vigtige værk fra arkitekter og billedhuggere, der arbejder for det romerske militær, er det store monument nær Adam-Kilise i Bessarabia (nu i Rumænien). Det var et solidt rund tårn med en frise af pilastre skiftevis med metoper og oven på havde et konisk tag og en ottekantet konstruktion, der indeholdt et panoply, der var dannet med våben og en rustning. Disse metoper indeholdt kompositioner med flade relieffer og mange karakterer, der senere ville inspirere de dekorationsmotiver, der blev brugt i slutningen af ​​middelalderen. Adam-Kilises tårn opretholder det karakteristiske romerske symbol på trofæ*(trofeo). Trofæet er af en meget fjerntliggende latinsk oprindelse, det blev brugt allerede i republikkens periode og blev traditionelt ansat indtil imperiets dage. Oprindeligt var trofæet et træ eller en stang plantet på det sted, hvor hæren havde vundet en kampagne eller kamp, ​​og var dekoreret med et væld af våben taget fra de erobrede. Det var et tilbud til geni loci af stedet i taknemmelighed for den opnåede sejr. I første omgang var trofæerne træer dekoreret med våben, hvortil to af fjendens chefer var bundet til at sulte, men snart ønskede romerne, at vidnesbyrdene om militær succes skulle være mere permanente, og derfor blev de bygget med monumentale baser for at opretholde det sande trofæ hugget i sten. Et andet eksempel på trofæer er Pompejus ’s trofæer ved indgangen til Spanien i Summum af Pyrenæerne og Augustus ’ trofæer ved Galliens indgang i Nice.

En metope (# 14) af Trajan Trophy, der viser en romersk legionær med en mail manica* og spyd med en Dacian falxman* (Adamclisi Museum). De originale rester af Trajan Trophy (Adamclisi Museum).

Købmænd og landmænd, der bor i provinserne, modtog naturligvis kun “Romersk kunst ” kun kunsten bragt af legionerne, og disse dyrkede igen en særlig kunst, der var lidt påvirket af deres kontakt med de forskellige racer, der lever i imperiets grænser. Et typisk eksempel på denne kunst fra de provinser, der er påvirket af militær kunst, er reliefferne fra de såkaldte Igelsaule, eller Igel -spalte, som ikke er andet end en handelsfamilies grav. Det er et firkantet tårn med flere relieffer og en pyramideformet top, en meget hyppig form i romerske grave, selv siden imperiets tidligste år.

Igel -søjlen, (Igel, Trier, Tyskland), ca. 250 e.Kr.

Begravelsesreliefferne, der findes i romerske provinser, omfattede ofte scener fra det daglige liv, som giver nogle meget interessante billeder for de romerske skikke i imperiets sidste dage. Fra en af ​​disse grave, nær Neumagen, kom der nogle relieffer nu på Trier -museet, der med dejlig fortrolighed informerede os om de mest intime ting, som en lektion givet af husets forstander eller frisuren for en ædel dame , eller handlingen med at fremvise en gave eller betale en gæld.

Relief, der skildrer en skolescene, fra “ Neumagen ” relieffer, 2. århundrede e.Kr. (Rheinisches Landesmuseum, Trier, Tyskland). Romersk begravelsesstele, der viser par, (Arkæologisk Museum, Beirut, Libanon).

Begravelsesmonumenterne fra provinserne blev ofte reduceret til en simpel stele, en degeneration af de græske begravelsessteler og havde portrætter inde i en lille niche eller en medaljon. Nogle gange samler flere portrætter af individer fra en familie sig i den samme mindesten. I Spanien blev det fundet en særlig type stele med få relieffer og hestesko bue* kombineret med geometriske roser. Hesteskoformen blev ansat af visigotiske befolkninger på Den Iberiske Halvø og senere af araberne, der muligvis har lært det af visigoterne. Det menes dog ikke, at denne form for hesteskobuen oprindeligt er fra Spanien, da den ikke forekom i andre iberiske monumenter, men i stedet var meget hyppig i Syrien og Lilleasien. Da de fleste steler dekoreret med hesteskobuen kom fra León, hvor den romerske garnison i Spanien lå, kunne det accepteres, at denne form for hesteskobuen, som senere havde en enorm accept i Spanien, oprindeligt var fra Syrien og senere bragt til Spanien af ​​de romerske legioner.

Den romerske militærkunst havde en vis ensartethed, og det kan være muligt, at den romanske kunststil, der senere dukkede op i provinserne, var mere afhængig af den militære kunst, legionerne bragte, end af den officielle kunst, der kom fra Rom.

Kun en af ​​disse romerske provinser udviklede en stærk kraftig kunst, måske mere monumental end selve Rom: den østromerske provins. De romerske byer på ørkengrænserne var storslåede, de blev bygget med store sten og udfordrede i rigdom og størrelse de gamle kongelige slotte fra Sassanid -perserne.

Romerske ruiner ved Palmyra i det centrale Syrien.

Næsten alle byer i Syrien blev genopbygget i romertiden. For at sikre romersk herredømme i østgrænserne beordrede kejserne at bygge to byer midt i ørkenen: Baalbek og Palmyra, med en storhed, der overraskede asiaterne selv. Disse byer var placeret på steder, hvor der havde været semitiske helligdomme dedikeret til Baals*. Dette synes i hvert fald at være angivet af kulten der praktiseres der og formen på deres templer hypaethral* eller med deres cella åbnet som en gårdhave, plus andre detaljer om deres gigantiske konstruktion, der var fuldstændig orientalsk oprindelse.

Jupiters tempel i Baalbeck (Libanon). Interiør i Bacchus -templet i Baalbek.

Layoutet af Baalbek, en by beliggende mellem Damaskus og Beirut, vil give en idé om det generelle arrangement af helligdommen. Indgangen var en portik med ti søjler, der førte til en første sekskantet gårdhave. Bag dette var en kæmpe terrasse med alteret i midten og to vandcisterner. Dertil opført på et podium var Jupiter Heliopolitanus 'store tempel omgivet af en portik med korintiske søjler og det indre af cella ligner en gård med vægge overdådigt dekoreret med pilastre og nicher. Denne bygning, der har de højeste søjler i verden (20 meter) blev bygget på Antoninus Pius 'tid.

[Nedenfor to relieffer af Jupitertemplet i Baalbek]

Ud over de store religiøse centre i Baalbek og Palmyra havde andre byer ved den syriske grænse en vis velstand og blev rige, fordi de var vigtige handels- og indkøbscentre blandt asiatiske byer og de allerede romaniserede provinser. Gode ​​eksempler er Bosra og Petra i Jordan. I Petra blev facaderne på grave og huse hugget ind i klippen. De fleste havde den samme semiklassiske stil: søjler fastgjort til vægge og arkitrave med en mærkelig top af forskudte kantninger. Et af disse monumenter kaldet af araberne det skat af Salomon synes at have været et tempel som den såkaldte El Deir eller kloster.

Facade af Al Khazneh (“Skattkammeret ” også kendt som “Salomons område ”) i Petra, Jordan, 1. århundrede e.Kr. Ad Deir (eller “ Klosteret ”) i Petra, Jordan, 1. århundrede e.Kr.

I øst, så langt som i det tredje århundrede, havde den romerske kunsts særegenheder problemet med at afgøre, om en bestemt provins spillede en vigtig rolle i den kunstneriske udvikling af de gamle romerske kunstneriske former eller havde påvirket udviklingen af ​​den tidlige kristne kunst. Da vi antog, at militærkunsten i de vestromerske provinser var med til at skabe den middelalderlige romanske ornamentik, antog vi på samme måde også, at den kombinerede romerske og østlige kunst fra Syrien i høj grad skulle have påvirket den kristne byzantinske kunst.

Mithraeum i ruinerne af Ostia Antica, Italien.

Udenlandske religiøse kulter var et redskab til indførelsen af ​​kunstneriske stilarter i Rom, selv siden republikkens sidste dage. Fra Egypten importerede Rom kulterne Isis og Serapis, indbragt af veteraner fra borgerkrigene. Serapis, den lokale gud i Alexandria, blev senere identificeret med Aesculapius. I provinserne introducerede legionærerne kulten af ​​solguden Mithra af iransk oprindelse. Der var Mithraeums*eller templer til tilbedelse af Mithra i England, Rhinen, Afrika, Frankrig og Spanien. Hengivenheden til Mithra ankom til alle grænseområder, hvor de romerske legioner var stationeret. Gruppen af ​​Mithras knælende på tyren og klar til at slagte den (Tauroctony*) blev undertiden repræsenteret med stor skønhed. Selvom der var mindre variationer, var de grundlæggende træk ved den centrale tauroctonyscene meget ensartede. Denne statue blev generelt placeret ved det underjordiske alter i Mithraeum, hvor de religiøse ceremonier blev afholdt, det var en måde, hvorpå denne gamle persiske religion blev tilpasset den hellenistiske og romerske mentalitet i disse dage. Mithraisme var meget populær blandt de romerske tropper og nåede sit højdepunkt omkring det 2. eller 3. århundrede e.Kr., dog som en konkurrerende religion til den spirende kristendom. Mithraisme blev railed imod for sin formodede djævelske efterligning af kristne ritualer og blev derfor undertrykt af det 4. århundrede.

Tauroctony eller Mithras dræber tyren, ca. 2. århundrede e.Kr., marmor (British Museum).

Baal: En titel og ærefuld betydning “lord ” på de nordvestlige semitiske sprog under antikken. Fra dets anvendelse blandt mennesker kom det til at blive anvendt på guder. Navnet Baʿal var især forbundet med storm- og frugtbarhedsguden Hadad og hans lokale manifestationer. Den hebraiske bibel indeholder en generisk brug af udtrykket i forbindelse med forskellige levantinske guder, der i sidste ende blev henvist som falske guder. Denne brug blev overtaget til kristendommen og islam, nogle gange i form af Beelzebub i demonologi.

Cardo: Det latinske navn givet til en nord-syd gade i gamle romerske byer og militærlejre som en integreret del af byplanlægningen. Det cardo maximus var den vigtigste eller centrale nord-syd-orienterede gade.

Castrum: (pl. Castra). I Den Romerske Republik og Romerriget var det latinske ord castrum en bygning eller jord, der blev brugt som en befæstet militærlejr. Castrum var udtrykket brugt til forskellige størrelser af lejre, herunder en stor legionær fæstning, mindre hjælpestof forter, midlertidige lejre og “marcherende ” forter. Diminutivformen castellum blev brugt til fortlets.

Decumanus: I romersk byplanlægning var en decumanus en øst-vest-orienteret vej i en romersk by, castrum (militærlejr) eller colonia. Den vigtigste decumanus var Decumanus Maximus, som normalt tilsluttede Porta Praetoria (i en militærlejr, tættest på fjenden) til Porta Decumana (væk fra fjenden). I midten eller groma, det Decumanus Maximus krydser det vinkelrette Cardo Maximus, den primære nord-syd vej, der var den sædvanlige hovedgade. Det Forum var normalt placeret tæt på dette skæringspunkt af Decumanus Maximus og Cardo Maximus.

Falx: Et våben med et buet blad, der var skarpt på indersiden, der blev brugt af trakierne og dacierne - og senere en belejringskrog, der blev brugt af romerne.

Hesteskobue: Hesteskobuen (spansk: arco de herradura), også kaldet den mauriske bue og nøglehulsbuen, er den emblematiske bue for islamisk arkitektur. Hesteskobuer kan have afrundet, spids eller fligeformet form. Hesteskobuer kendes fra præ-islamisk Syrien, hvor formen blev brugt så langt som i det fjerde århundrede e.Kr. Det var dog i Spanien og Nordafrika (hvor det gik fra Spanien), at hesteskobuer udviklede deres karakteristiske form. Før den muslimske invasion af Spanien brugte vestgoterne dem som et af deres vigtigste arkitektoniske træk. Mozaraberne vedtog også denne buestil i deres arkitektur og belyste manuskripter.

Hypaethral: (Fra latin hypaethrus, fra oldgræsk hupaithros, hupo- “under ” og aither “sky, air ”). Et gammelt tempel uden tag.

Manica: (Latin: manica , “sleeve ”). En type jern- eller bronzearmbeskytter, med buede og overlappende metalsegmenter eller plader, fastgjort til læderremme, båret af romerske gladiatorer kaldet crupellarii, og senere af soldater.

Mithraeum: (fra latin, pl. Mithraea). Et stort eller lille mitraisk tempel, opført i klassisk antik af tilbedere af Mithras. De fleste Mithraea kan dateres mellem 100 fvt og 300 e.Kr., mest i Romerriget. Mithraeum var enten en tilpasset naturlig hule eller hule eller en bygning, der efterlignede en hule. Når det var muligt, blev Mithraeum bygget inden for eller under en eksisterende bygning. Mens et flertal af Mithraea er under jorden, har nogle åbne huller i loftet for at give noget lys ind, måske for at forholde sig til universets forbindelse og tidens gang. Stedet for et Mithraeum kan også identificeres ved dets entydige indgang eller forhal, der står overfor en apsisformet væg, hvor et piedestalalter på bagsiden stod, ofte i en fordybning. Dens “hule ” havde hævet bænke langs sidevæggene til det rituelle måltid.

Tauroctony: Et moderne navn givet til de centrale kultrelieffer i de romerske mitraiske mysterier. Billedet viser Mithras, der dræber en tyr, deraf navnet tauroktoni efter det græske ord tauroktonos (ταυροκτόνος, “bulldrab ”). Det adskiller sig fra den kultiske slagtning af en tyr i det gamle Rom og kendt som en Taurobolium, som var en egentlig tyredræbende kulthandling udført af indviede af Mysteries of Magna Mater eller Cybele.

Trofæ: En tropaion (græsk: τρόπαιον, latin: tropaeum), hvorfra den engelske “trophy ” er afledt, er et gammelt græsk og senere romersk monument, der blev oprettet for at mindes en sejr over én ’s fjender. Typisk tager dette form af et træ, nogle gange med et par armlignende grene (eller i senere tider et par indsatser på kryds og tværs), hvorpå der er hængt rustning af en besejret og død fjende. Det tropaion er derefter dedikeret til en gud i taksigelse for sejren.


Cardo Maximus fra Italica, Spanien - Historie

Det femte største romerske amfiteater findes i provinsen Sevilla, Spanien. Bygningens dimensioner er 156,5 × 134 meter og arenaens dimensioner er 71. 2 × 46,2 meter. Bygget under regeringstid i Adrian ’s Empire, 117-138 e.Kr., kunne Italica amfiteater rumme op til 25.000 mennesker og står stadig i dag. Italica Amphitheatre blev bygget i den nordlige del af den første romerske by i Hispania, Itálica, beliggende i den nuværende kommune Santiponce (provinsen Sevilla), i Andalusien (Spanien), som blev grundlagt i 206 f.Kr. C.

Romerske amfiteatre er amfiteatre-store, cirkulære eller ovale udendørs spillesteder med hævede siddepladser-bygget af de gamle romere. De blev brugt til begivenheder som gladiatorkampe, venationes (dyredrab) og henrettelser. Omkring 230 romerske amfiteatre er fundet på tværs af det romerske imperiums område. Tidlige amfiteatre stammer fra den republikanske periode, selvom de blev mere monumentale i kejsertiden.

Historie
Italica nord for nutidens Santiponce, 9 km nordvest for Sevilla i det sydlige Spanien, var en kursiv bosættelse grundlagt af den romerske general Scipio i provinsen Hispania Baetica. Det var fødestedet for romerske kejsere Trajanus, Hadrian (sandsynligvis) og Theodosius (muligvis). Det blomstrede under Hadrians regeringstid og blev et udførligt bycentrum og opnåede den højeste status som romersk by. Den moderne by Santiponce ligger til grund for den førromerske iberiske bosættelse og en del af den velbevarede romerske by.

Det blev bygget på kejser Hadrians tid, cirka mellem årene 117-138 og var en af ​​de største i hele Romerriget.

Tidlige amfiteatre
Det er usikkert, hvornår og hvor de første amfiteatre blev bygget. Der er optegnelser, der vidner om midlertidige træamfiteatre bygget i Forum Romanum til gladiatorspil fra det andet århundrede f.Kr. og frem, og disse kan være oprindelsen til den arkitektoniske form, der senere blev udtrykt i sten. I sin Historia Naturalis hævder Plinius den Ældre, at amfiteatret blev opfundet under Gaius Scribonius Curios briller i 53 f.Kr., hvor to halvcirkelformede teatre blev drejet mod hinanden for at danne et cirkulært amfiteater, mens tilskuerne stadig sad i de to halvdele . But while this may be the origin of the architectural term amphitheatrum, it cannot be the origin of the architectural concept, since earlier stone amphitheatres, known as spectacula or amphitheatera, have been found.

According to Jean-Claude Golvin, the earliest known stone amphitheatres are found in Campania, at Capua, Cumae and Liternum, where such venues were built towards the end of the second century BC. The next-oldest amphitheatre known, as well as one of the best-researched, is the amphitheatre of Pompeii, securely dated to be built shortly after 70 BC. There are relatively few other known early amphitheatres: those at Abella, Teanum and Cales date to the Sullan era (until 78 BC), those at Puteoli and Telesia from the Augustan (27 BC–14 AD). The amphitheatres at Sutrium, Carmo and Ucubi were built around 40–30 BC, those at Antioch and Phaestum (Phase I) in the mid-first century BC.

Imperial era
In the Imperial era, amphitheatres became an integral part of the Roman urban landscape. As cities vied with each other for preeminence in civic buildings, amphitheatres became ever more monumental in scale and ornamentation. Imperial amphitheatres comfortably accommodated 40,000–60,000 spectators, or up to 100,000 in the largest venues, and were only outdone by the hippodromes in seating capacity. They featured multi-storeyed, arcaded façades and were elaborately decorated with marble and stucco cladding, statues and reliefs, or even partially made of marble.

As the Empire grew, most of its amphitheatres remained concentrated in the Latin-speaking western half, while in the East spectacles were mostly staged in other venues such as theatres or stadia. In the West, Amphitheatres were built as part of Romanization efforts by providing a focus for the Imperial cult, by private benefactors, or by the local government of colonies or provincial capitals as an attribute of Roman municipal status. A large number of modest arenas were built in Roman North Africa, where most of the architectural expertise was provided by the Roman military.

The late Empire and the decline of the amphitheatre tradition
Several factors caused the eventual extinction of the tradition of amphitheatre construction. Gladiatorial munera began to disappear from public life during the 3rd century, due to economic pressure, philosophical disapproval and opposition by the increasingly predominant new religion of Christianity, whose adherents considered such games an abomination and a waste of money. Spectacles involving animals, venationes, survived until the sixth century, but became costlier and rarer. The spread of Christianity also changed the patterns of public beneficence: where a pagan Roman would often have seen himself as a homo civicus, who gave benefits to the public in exchange for status and honor, a Christian would more often be a new type of citizen, a homo interior, who sought to attain a divine reward in heaven and directed his beneficence to alms and charity rather than public works and games.

These changes meant that there were ever fewer uses for amphitheatres, and ever fewer funds to build and maintain them. The last construction of an amphitheatre is recorded in 523 in Pavia under Theoderic. After the end of venationes, the only remaining purpose of amphitheatres was to be the place of public executions and punishments. After even this purpose dwindled away, many amphitheatres fell into disrepair and were gradually dismantled for building material, razed to make way for newer buildings, or vandalized. Others were transformed into fortifications or fortified settlements, such as at Leptis Magna, Sabratha, Arles and Pola, and in the 12th century the Frangipani fortified even the Colosseum to help them in Roman power struggles. Yet others were repurposed as Christian churches, including the arenas at Arles, Nîmes, Tarragona and Salona the Colosseum became a Christian shrine in the 18th century.

Of the surviving amphitheatres, many are now protected as historic monuments several are tourist attractions.

Architecture of the amphitheater
With a capacity of 25,000 spectators, it was one of the empire’s largest amphitheaters with three levels of stands. Under the level of the old wooden floor of the amphitheater there is a service pit for the different spectacles of gladiators and wild beasts.

The grandstand, cavea was divided into three sections, the ima, media and summa cavea, separated by annular corridors called praecinctiones. The first, the ima cavea, had 6 tiers, with 8 access doors, and was reserved for a ruling class. The second, the half cavea, was intended for the humblest population, had 12 tiers and 14 access doors. The summa cavea, covered by an awning, was reserved only to house children and women.

The amphitheater also had several rooms dedicated to the cult of Nemesis and Dea Caelestis.

General plan
Amphitheatres are distinguished from circuses, hippodromes, which were usually rectangular and built mainly for racing events and stadia, built for athletics. But several of these terms have at times been used for one and the same venue. The word amphitheatrum means “theatre all around”. Thus an amphitheatre is distinguished from the traditional semicircular Roman theatres by being circular or oval in shape.

Komponenter
The Roman amphitheatre consists of three main parts the cavea, the arena, and the vomitorium. The seating area is called the cavea (enclosure). The cavea is formed of concentric rows of stands which are either supported by arches built into the framework of the building, or simply dug out of the hillside or built up using excavated material extracted during the excavation of the fighting area (the arena).

The cavea is traditionally organised in three horizontal sections, corresponding to the social class of the spectators:

The ima cavea is the lowest part of the cavea and the one directly surrounding the arena. It was usually reserved for the upper echelons of society.
The media cavea directly follows the ima cavea and was open to the general public, though mostly reserved for men.
The summa cavea is the highest section and was usually open to women and children.

Similarly the front row was called the prima cavea and the last row was called the cavea ultima. The cavea was further divided vertically into cunei. A cuneus (Latin for wedge plural, cunei) was a wedge-shaped division separated by the scalae or stairways.

The arched entrances both at the arena level and within the cavea are called the vomitoria (Latin “to spew forth” singular, vomitorium) and were designed to allow rapid dispersal of large crowds.

The ellipse as a general rule
Jean-Claude Golvin, in 2008, explains that in reality a certain number of Roman amphitheatres do not describe a perfect ellipse, but a pseudo-ellipsoidal form composed of a succession of connected arcs of circles. This provision is guided by the need for a cavea same width regardless of the point of the amphitheater considered that the stands are all of similar size. The observed dimensional or returned from several arenas of the Roman Empire, including that of Capua, seem to confirm this theory, modeled by Gerard Parysz.

Rare amphitheatres do not follow the overall plan of an ellipsoidal building, like that of Leptis Magna. This building, entirely dug in an old quarry and inaugurated in 56, gives the impression of being composed of two adjoining theaters and its arena like its cavea have the form of two semicircles connected by very short segments of right. This configuration would have allowed him to host shows of a new genre wanted by Nero, combining fighting, equestrian demonstrations and musical competitions.

Massive Amphitheater and Amphitheater with Radiant Walls
A first type of amphitheater is qualified as solid or massive as in Samarobriva (Amiens, France), Octodurus (Martigny, Switzerland), Emerita Augusta (Merida, Spain) or Syracusae (Syracuse, Italy) in these constructions, the cavea is not carried by radiant walls and vaults, but by an embankment which descends from the outside of the amphitheater towards the arena this embankment may be partly made up of arena excavation lands inside a small hill at the top of which the amphitheater is built this is the case in Tours (Caesarodunum).

Spectators must then sit directly on the grassy slope, but the embankment can also accommodate wooden stands whose discovery of the remains, if they ever existed, would be exceptional. The masonry is reduced to a minimum: the outer wall, the arena wall, access galleries orvomitoires, also included in the embankment, some radiating retaining walls delimiting caissons to receive embankments, as well as the cages stair. External staircases pressed against the facade of the amphitheater, as in Pompeii, provide access to the upper part of the cavea.

The second type of amphitheater, which represents most of those identified in the Roman world, is the amphitheater with walls and radiant vaults. The cavea is then supported by a set of masonry opus caementicium which draw a set of fairly light seats on which the stands rest. An annular circulation gallery – there are two at the Colosseum and the Capua amphitheater – allows spectators to win the vomitories and stairs accessing the arena. The oldest of these monuments seems to be the amphitheater of Statilius Taurus in Rome, inaugurated in 29 AD and destroyed in great fire of Rome in 64, under Nero. The precise details of its architecture – as well as its exact size and location – remain unknown, but it is clear that this is a hollow structure building and that the upper part of the cavea has wooden steps.. Theaters had used earlier this hollow architecture, such as the theater Teanum Sidicinum from the end of ii th century BC. or the Pompey Theater in Rome, completed in 55 AD.

Finally, in several cases, the construction of the amphitheater combines the two types of architecture it is most often to reduce the masonry parts by taking advantage of the support of the monument on the side of a natural relief the part of the cavea which rests there is massive, the vaults and the radiating walls reserved for the bet built “in the free air”. This is the case of the amphitheater of Saintes whose long sides of the cavea are supported on both flanks in valley arena being established at the bottom of the valley, closed on both sides by radiant walls and arcades.

The nature, full or hollow, amphitheaters, can not be an absolute criterion of dating. If the Pompeii amphitheater, partially massive is built between 80 and 70 BC AD, that of Taurus, hollow, towards 30 AD, Lecture halls found in Gaul totally or partially massive built much later, as those of Holy (over about 50) or towers, in the second half of the i st century, the latter being even is expanded according to the same principle hundred years later. It seems that, region by region and as the geographical spread of these monuments, architects seek, as a first step and as much as possible, to take advantage of the natural relief to lean against the amphitheatres they propose to to build. In a second step, and when the technique of construction of the radiating walls and the arcades is locally well controlled, they build hollow amphitheatres, of which it is possible to choose the location by freeing the constraints of the relief.

Choice of site and development of surroundings
When the site does not meet specific topographical requirements, such as the use of a natural relief to back the cavea, amphitheatres are often built on the outskirts of urbanized areas. Several explanations can be advanced. Amphitheatres are often built in cities already built for several decades or more to build them in the middle of the city would impose important works of demolition of the existing building. Amphitheatres are monuments with a capacity often exceeding 10 000 people, whether it is the population of the city stricto sensuor inhabitants of a wider geographical area Before and after the shows, crowds of this size require a large clearance around the building to smooth the flow. The amphitheater is a symbol of Roman power, the power of the city where it is built or Roman acculturation in conquered territories this monumental effect is more easily obtained by clearing the amphitheater of the existing building. Once dissociated from the ritual character they originally had, the fights that take place in the amphitheatres become pagan spectacles incompatible with the sacredness of the urban pomerium the amphitheaters can not be built at the.

There are, however, situations where the amphitheater was built in the heart of the city. The Colosseum is the most demonstrative example. This is also the case in Amiens where the amphitheater is built against the forum and its temple, built before him, so as to compose a large monumental ensemble for this purpose, a whole residential area is razed to make room for the amphitheater.

Sometimes there is a district specifically devoted to the monuments of the spectacle such as Augustodunum – Autun -, Merida or Pozzuoli (amphitheater and theater), Lugdunum – Lyon – (Theater and Odeon) or Leptis Magna (amphitheater and circus).

Access to the amphitheater is generally studied to allow the good movement of people. In Capua, a path directly connects the main axis of the amphitheater to Via Appia in Tours, it is the small axis which is in the prolongation of the decumanus maximus. In this same city, a circulation space whose use is attested is located on the outskirts of the amphitheater. A painting representing the amphitheater of Pompeii in59 av. AD shows barques of food merchants established around the amphitheater – the shows for more than a day, it is necessary for the spectators to be able to restore themselves.

Facade
The facade of the amphitheater, the only part immediately visible from the monument to the eyes of the public outside, is the subject of special care it must be, even more than the monument as a whole, a showcase of the wealth of the sponsor or sponsors of the construction of the know-how of its architects and workers and a symbol of the power of the city. This is why an architectural technique different from that used for the structural work of the amphitheater is applied to it.

Traditionally – although there are exceptions to this pattern – the facade is composed of one or more series of superimposed arcades, of gradually decreasing height, surmounted by a row of penthouses. It is built in blocks of large apparatus that use the most noble stones available locally, unless it is, as in Capua, only a veneer on a superstructure (masonry bricks in this case). The keystones of the arcades can be carved, the arcades can compose niches garnished with statues.

If the facade is composed of a more common apparatus, only the doors are decorated in a special way, according to the techniques and materials available locally. The Colosseum even offers numbered doors by engraving in their keystone, facilitating spectator access.

The last level of the facade often has holes for embedding the masts that support the velum, large sail stretched over the amphitheater and to shad all or part.

Cavea
The functional limits of human sight fix the maximum dimensions of amphitheatres: beyond 60 m, accomodation is less rapid, causing eyestrain. This maximum distance separating the spectator from the show is approached but respected at the Colosseum, which, according to this criterion, would be the largest amphitheater that it was possible to build.

Examination of the remains of the cavea of the amphitheater of El Jem shows that the angle of the stands with the horizontal is 34 ° 12 ‘ for the rows closest to the arena, but 36 ° for the bleachers located at the top of the cavea. This difference aims to clear the view of the arena for the spectators who are thus less bothered by the heads of those placed just below them. In the particular case of some massive amphitheatres whose slope of the cavea constitutes itself the seat of the spectators, it is not possible to reach the same angles under pain of collapse of the embankment.

Auguste sets up a very precise and immutable code governing the placement of the spectators in all the monuments of spectacle: the soldiers do not rub shoulders with the civilians, the people dressed in dark are gathered in the middle part of the cavea, the married men are separated from the single, but their wives are relegated to the highest tiers, as are the modest people, and so on.. These dispositions are accompanied by a physical partition of the cavea the terraces are divided horizontally by precedences defining maeniana and vertically by radiating stairs limiting cunei. Near the arena take place the box of honor and the podium reserved for notables. It is also in this same part of the cavea that is the sacellum, small temple probably for the use of gladiators.

While the construction of the facade of the amphitheater is the object of all the attention of the architects, the realization of the cavea implements more common materials and of local origin this is the case in Verona where the masonry is composed of a concrete of pebbles of the Adige linked to the mortar of sand and lime in Pula, only wood forms part of the internal structures of the amphitheater.

Arena
The elliptical or pseudo-elliptical arena is the place where the shows take place. It is usually covered with sand avoiding gladiators to slide during the fighting this sand also helps to absorb any spilled blood.

The layout of the arena varies according to the shows it hosts. In the first amphitheatres, only battles between gladiators take place there the presence of these professionals poses no risk to the public and the wall separating the arena from the cavea is of reduced height. After the introduction of venationes with animals sometimes wild, it is important to ensure the protection of the spectators, by means of a podium wall of a height often higher than 1.50 m. This wall is often pierced with doors or grilles giving access to boxes housing animals. Some amphitheatres have an arena dug out of a basin (Merida) to present aquatic shows, but only the Colosseum of Rome has an arena specially designed for naumachies to take place there.

Basements
If the amphitheater built in Rome under Caesar is the first to have a basement, this device will expand to many monuments built later. The increasing prestige of the performances given in the arenas, their increasing complexity with successive sets of sets, the use of more and more numerous gladiators and animals require such facilities. The basement of the arena is therefore dug galleries that are connected cages for animals, carceresfor gladiators, while a system of hatches and hoists raises all actors in the arena and the scenery elements to the arena level. These converted basements can be in direct communication with nearby gladiator schools, such as the Coliseum. They can also house an elaborate system of gutters and gutters to collect runoff from the cavea before they are stored in a cistern, as in Capua.

These converted basements are attested in many amphitheatres in Italy, but also in the Roman provinces such as Arles or Nimes (France), Merida (Spain), Leptis Magna (Libya) or El Jem (Tunisia) and perhaps Pula (Croatia).

Financing of the amphitheater
The dedications for the inauguration of Roman monuments very often mention the names of local notables who participated in the financing of their construction. This évergétisme can simply mark the power and the wealth of the donor. It can also have a more direct meaning: the Arles amphitheater was built with funds of Caius Junius Priscus, former candidate for duumvir juridicundo in fulfillment of a promise made in an election. The status of the evergreen is sometimes quoted: Caius Julius Rufus, who participated in the financing of the amphitheater of the Three Gauls in Lyon is a priest of Rome and Augustus at the Federal Shrine of the Three Gauls.

This évergétisme can manifest itself as a contribution to the overall financing of the building (Périgueux) or by a participation, partial or total, in the construction of one of its elements (podium in Lyon, podium, doors and statues in silver with Arles).

This practice is also part of a context of prestige rivalry between city halls. It results in the desire to build very large at lower cost, which is an explanation for the use, sometimes massive, wood for the stands and other structures of the amphitheater. This also provides quick access to a resource and local know-how and ensure a pace of construction and commissioning period compatible with the holding of election promises.

Brug
The amphitheater is primarily intended to host gladiator fights. The day before the fighting was organized the cena libera, a large banquet free that could be shared with spectators who wanted to see the value of the fighters. Gladiator combat is a highly codified show. Gladiators represent well-defined types of fighters easily recognizable to the public by their armament, their clothing, but also by the postures adopted during the fight. The fights, which are attended by referees, are most often duels between a slightly armed but very mobile (retiair, scissor) gladiator to another, less swift but powerfully armed and battleship (mirmillon, secutor). The death of one of the protagonists at the end of the fight is not a rule and the fight can end when the opponents are injured or exhausted: a professional gladiator is an “investment” for his laniste. It seems that at certain periods, under Auguste for example, the killings in the arena were prohibited.

Naval battles (naumachiae) can be organized inside certain buildings, but their existence is actually attested only for the Colosseum the size of the arena must be sufficient and the height of the water filling it must be important for ships, even those with a shallow draft, to be able to evolve there. Of aqueducts are sometimes specially built to bring water needed to fill the arena. These naval battles are of course very popular with the public because they are rare. In addition, they often become technically impossible after the development of basements in arenas of some amphitheatres (Colosseum, Merida, Pula).

As for the hunts (venationes), they consisted of fighting animals against animals, or men against animals. This show did not take place in a bare arena, but through the trap doors of the basement, a real landscape of vegetation and rocks was installed in the arena.

Also in the amphitheater were death executions (” noxii ” in Latin), called ” meridiani ” (those of noon), because this type of show took place during midday breaks. Particularly under Nero, Christians were burned alive. The death of the condemned was staged, sometimes in the form of mythological tales: still under Nero, according to Suetonius, we reconstructed for example the myth of Icarus, who crashed on the floor of the arena and covered the emperor of blood. Clement I reported meanwhile that Christian had suffered the fate Dirce. It could also be of historical episodes like the one where Mucius Scaevola is burning hand.

Diffusion territory
According to Jean-Claude Golvin, the first stone amphitheaters are known in Campania in Capua, to Cuma and Liternum where such places were built at the end of the ii th century BC. J.-C.. One of the oldest and most studied amphitheatres is the Pompeii Amphitheater, which is dated 70 BC. J.-C. The first few amphitheatres are known: those of Abella, Teanum and Cales dating from the time of Sylla, and those of Pozzuoliand Telese Terme for the Augustan era. The amphitheatres of Sutri, Carmona and Ucubi were built around 40 – 30 BC. AD, and those of Antioch and Paestum (phase I) in the middle of 1 century BC. J.-C..

In the imperial period, the amphitheatres became part of the Roman cityscape. While cities compete for the prominence of constructions in the field of civic buildings, the construction of amphitheatres is increasingly monumental in the occupied space and in ornamentation. The imperial amphitheaters could comfortably accommodate between 40,000 and 60,000 spectators, or up to 100,000 for larger buildings. For the number of seats, they were exceeded only by racetracks. They are built on several floors, with arches, are usually richly decorated with marble and covered with stucco, and have many statues.

With the expansion of the empire, most of the amphitheatres remain concentrated in the western part, that is to say that of Latin language, while in the eastern part, the shows are often staged in other venues such as theaters or stages. In the west of the empire, amphitheatres are built as part of Romanization and to provide a center for imperial worship. The funds for construction come from private benefactors, the local government of the colony or provincial capital. A significant number of small arenas were built in the province of Africa, with the support of the Roman army and its expertise in architecture.

One of the later built amphitheatres seems to be that of Bordeaux at the end of the ii th century or early iii th century. The dating of the El Jem, sometimes considered very late, is controversial in the absence of decisive evidence. The second amphitheater Metz, building a mixed character, appears to date back to the end of the iii th century or the beginning of the iv th century.

Architectural evolutions
The monuments of the show, including the amphitheatres, are not buildings built once and for all without any modification, sometimes substantial, being made to the structure, while they are still used.

Thus, the cavea of the amphitheater of Toulouse, initially built out of wood, profits in a second time of bearing structures masonry. The facade of the Pula amphitheater, which has stood the test of time, perhaps reflects the complete resumption and enlargement of an old Augustinian building. The expansion of the amphitheater in Avenches, in the second half of the ii th century is attested, like that of the amphitheater of Tours about the same time, the estimated capacity from 14 000 to 34 000 spectators. The amphitheater of the Three Gauls of Lyon, originally intended to accommodate delegates from the three Roman provinces of Gaul, is enlarged so that the population of Lyon too can attendshows.

The redevelopment sometimes only affects part of the monument, as in Mérida and perhaps Pula, where the arena is dug to allow the installation of a basement with cages, corridors and accessory stores.

Nedgang
Several factors lead to the completion of amphitheater construction. The first is the gradual end of gladiator fights, which begin disappearing from public life during the iii th century, because of the economic crisis, philosophical disapproval and opposition of the new religion increasingly dominant what is Christianity, whose followers consider these games as an abomination and a waste of money. The shows involving animals (venationes) survived until the vi th centurybut they become more expensive and rarer. The spread of Christianity has also changed the habits of public beneficence: previously a pagan Roman is considered a homo civicus who finances public performances in exchange for obtaining a status and obtaining honor, a Christian him considers himself a homo interior who seeks a divine reward in heaven and directs his efforts to charity and charity rather than to public spectacles andgames.

These changes show that amphitheatres are less and less used and that a lack of funds does not allow to build new ones, nor to maintain those already built. The last construction of an amphitheater took place in 523 in Pavia under Theodoric. After the end of the venationes, the remaining amphitheatres are only used for public executions and punishments. After this short re-use, many amphitheatres have fallen into disrepair and are being progressively dismantled for building materials, or razed to make room for newer buildings, or vandalized. Others are transformed into fortifications or fortified villages, like Leptis Magna, Sabratha, Arles and Pola, and the xii th century, the family Frangipani even strengthens the Colosseum to help them in their struggle to gain control of Rome. Other amphitheatres are reoriented as Christian churches, including the arenas of Arles, Nîmes, Tarragona and Salone. The Coliseum is a Christian church in the xviii th century.


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Cardo Maximus of Italica, Spain - History

Decumanus (Latin for 'tenth') may refer to:

In Roman Gadara, present-day Umm Qais in Jordan, the Decumanus runs east-west for approximately one kilometre with its ancient flagstones extant.

Within the city of Split in present-day Croatia is the UNESCO Roman monument, Diocletian's Palace. This city, built by the Emperor Diocletian, exhibits the characteristic Roman orthogonal street system with the Decumanus Maximus connecting the west Iron Gate to the east Silver Gate.

In Roman city planning, a decumanus was an east-west-oriented road in a Roman city, castrum (military camp), or colonia. The main decumanus var det Decumanus Maximus, which normally connected the Porta Praetoria (in a military camp, closest to the enemy) to the Porta Decumana (away from the enemy).

In the ancient Roman city of Barcino (present day Barcelona, Spain), the Decumanus Maximus started at the late-Roman gate (which still stands) in front of the current Plaça Nova square.

The Cardo and Decumanus Maximus were the main colonnaded streets of Roman Berytus.

In the middle, or groma, the Decumanus Maximus crosses the perpendicular Cardo Maximus, the primary north-south road that was the usual main street. The Forum is normally located close to this intersection of the Decumanus Maximus and the Cardo Maximus.

In Florence, the Decumanus is preserved as the streets Via Strozzi, Via Speziali, and Via del Corso in the city's old centre. Although these streets have different names they form a continuous line with a split between the Via Strozzi and Via Speziali by the Palazzo Strozzi. Roman times, these three streets formed the Decumanus of Florentina, the name of the Roman colonia. The Via Roma and the Via Calimala are formed from the ancient Cardo, and what was once the Forum in ancient Florence is now the Piazza della Repubblica.

Cardo Decumanus Crossing was in the heart of Roman Berytus (actual Beirut, Lebanon).

Today five re-erected columns mark the crossing of the Cardo and Decumanus Maximus, the two main colonnaded streets of Roman Berytus. The Cardo Maximus connected the Roman Forum to a large complex, that was the center of the old Roman city. Det Decumanus Maximus ran parallel to Emir Bashir Street, following the line of the earlier Romano-Hellenistic city wall.

Today, five erected columns mark the crossing of the Cardo and the Decumanus Maximus, the two main colonnaded streets of Roman Berytus. The Cardo Maximus connected the Roman Forum to a large complex, extending from the al-Azariyeh building to Riad Al Solh Square. Det Decumanus Maximus ran parallel to Emir Bashir Street. Salvaged material from these colonnaded streets was used since the Umayyad period to build a new city wall and a water reservoir near the Roman crossing.

The Roman urban plan was based on a layout of streets forming a symmetrical grid, with those that ran northwest-southeast and northeast-southwest intersecting the two main axes of the city, the Cardo Maximus and the Decumanus Maximus. The streets were paved with large irregular slabs of slate, with the sewers flowing beneath them.

The upper Decumanus started at the Moron Gate and followed a path still not well defined as of 2012, crossing the current Plaza de Arriba to the northwest gate near the Postigo.

The forum has rectangular shape, close to the shape of a square, with dimensions: 143 m in north-southern direction and 136 m in east-western direction. A complex of public buildings was built to the North, dominating over the rest of the buildings at the square. Three entrances, situated along the axes of the eastern, southern and western edge, provide access to the streets, located at the sides of the Forum. The main streets cardo maximus and decumanus maximus intersect outside the eastern entrance of the complex.

The theatre was enlarged in the period AD 311-13. This involved building above the Decumanus Maximus which was taken through a tunnel 5 m wide and 55 m long. An inscription which was at the entrance to the tunnel dates this enlargement. The original architecture can be dated back to the founding of the colony or may go back to the Hellenistic age. Further excavation is needed.

The street dates back to Roman times, when it was the city's Decumanus Maximus. During the Middle Ages it was home to many artists who painted heraldic coats of arms, whence the street's name (Schilder means signs or escutcheons). Among today's landmarks on Schildergasse are the Atoniterkirche, the oldest Protestant church in Cologne, and Peek & Cloppenburg's Weltstadthaus, designed by Renzo Piano.

First mentioned in AD 966, the church was built atop the stylobate of a Roman temple, from which a pietra serena pillar was incorporated into the church's north wall. There is also a Roman decumanus running north–south that flanks the church. Moreover, findings of nearby Lombard sepulchres indicates that the church was once an early Christian site. The church occupies a prominent position in Piazza Mino, near the Fiesole Cathedral. Due to an image inside of the Virgin Mary it appears that the church is the site of the oldest instance of veneration of the Madonna in the Diocese of Fiesole, which would form the basis for "Primerana" in the church's name.

The city ruins cover 114,000 square meters and are surrounded by large, fortified stone walls over two meters thick and seven meters high. The rectangular city design of 370 m by 310 m is based on Roman city planning and architecture with stonework borrowed from the Byzantines. Two large avenues, the Cardo maximum, running north to south, and the Decumanus Maximus, running east to west, divide the city into four quadrants. The two main avenues, decorated with colonnades and flanked by about 600 shops, intersect under a tetrapylon. The plinths, shafts and capitals of the tetrapylon are spolia reused in the Umayyad period. Smaller streets subdivide the western half of the city in quarters of different size.

To accommodate the growth of Ferrara, in 1492 the Duke Ercole I d'Este demolished the medieval walls of the city on the north, and had the court architect, Biagio Rossetti, design an urban expansion known as the Addizione Erculea. Rosetti was commissioned by Sigismondo d'Este, brother of the Duke Ercole I, to build this palace at the prestigious intersection of what was to be the Decumanus Maximus (now encompassing Corsi Porta Po, Biagio Rossetti, and Porta Mare) and Cardo Maximus (Corso Ercole I d'Este) of the "urban addition". It was built between 1493 and 1503. Used as a residential home by the Este family and, starting in 1641, by the Villa marquis, in 1832 the palace was acquired by the municipality of Ferrara to house the National Gallery of Art and the Civic University.

In the 1st century BC (probably 28 BC), the Romans founded Augusta Taurinorum. The typical Roman street grid can still be seen in the modern city, especially in the neighbourhood known as the Quadrilatero Romano (Roman Quadrilateral). Via Garibaldi traces the exact path of the Roman city's decumanus which began at the Porta Decumani, later incorporated into the Castello or Palazzo Madama. The Porta Palatina, on the north side of the current city centre, is still preserved in a park near the Cathedral. Remains of the Roman-period theatre are preserved in the area of the Manica Nuova. Turin reached about 5,000 inhabitants at the time, all living inside the high city walls.


Baelo Claudia Municipality

Baelo Claudia, as with most towns, developed over a period of time. Archaeologists have determined that the first buildings were those used for fish salting just behind the beach. They were built between 100 BC and 50 – 30 BC. The workforce probably lived at Silla del Papa. The salting bays were demolished around 30 BC and larger bays were built in their place. At the same time a few houses were built in the vicinity of the factory, spreading back towards the hills. This phase lasted until the start of the reign of Claudius in 41 AD. The town then grew rapidly and between 41 AD and the middle of the 2nd Century the main public buildings were built. The forum, market, shops, basilica and the temple were constructed during the Flavian dynasty, between 69 and 96 AD. During this period the town was given the status of municipium which conferred the rights of Roman citizens on the occupants.


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