14. maj 1945

14. maj 1945

14. maj 1945

Ny Guinea

Australske tropper indtager landsbyen Wewak

Europa

Wien meddeler, at Den Østrigske Republik er blevet genetableret

Krig til søs

Tysk ubåd U-244 overgiver sig

Tyske ubåde U-516, U-764, U-1010 overgiver sig i Lock Eriboll

Tysk submariness U-805 og U-858 overgiver sig ved Portsmouth

Tysk ubåd U-2326 overgav sig i Lock Foyle



Europa 1945: Tysk overgivelse

Tysklands ubetingede overgivelse den 8. maj markerede afslutningen på krigen i Europa. Omkostningerne havde været enorme og efterlod måske 35 millioner døde. Blandt dem var to tredjedele af Europas jøder, som systematisk var blevet udryddet af nazisterne. Og selvom krigen endelig var forbi, var resultatet et Europa domineret af USA og Sovjetunionen.

Hovedbegivenheder

6. - 11. maj 1945 Prags offensiv ▲

I maj 1945, i den sidste store sovjetoperation under Anden Verdenskrig i Europa, angreb styrker fra Unionen af ​​sovjetiske socialistiske republikker og dets allierede Tysklands hærgruppecenter og hærgruppe Ostmark i Tjekkoslovakiet og Østrig. Offensiven førte til kapitulation af tyske styrker i Centraleuropa og frigørelsen af ​​Prag. i wikipedia

7. maj 1945 German Instrument of Surrender ▲

Repræsentanter for de tyske væbnede styrker underskrev instrumentet for overgivelse i Berlin sammen med repræsentanter for Sovjetunionen og Det Forenede Kongerige (på vegne af de vestlige allierede, der også havde overvåget en overgivelsesceremoni i Reims tidligere samme dag). Denne handling bragte en ende på anden verdenskrig i Europa. i wikipedia

8. maj 1945 V.E. Dag ▲

Efter den tyske undertegnelse af overgivelsesloven den 7. maj 1945 i Reims, Frankrig og den 8. maj i Berlin, Tyskland, blev en helligdag - Sejr i Europadagen eller VE -dagen - fejret i de allierede lande for at markere de allieredes formel accept af Tysklands overgivelse og afslutningen på Anden Verdenskrig i Europa. i wikipedia

9. maj – 31. oktober 1945 Allieret besættelse af Norge ▲

Britiske styrker, der startede med den 1. luftbårne division i Operation Doomsday og efterfulgt af Force 134, opretholdt orden i Norge, indtil den norske regering og dens væbnede styrker blev fuldstændig genoprettet. i wikipedia


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14. maj 1945 - Historie

(Leveres med tilladelse fra Mr. Mark Boland)

BEMÆRK: Dette dokument blev genereret af AAF og blev hentet fra National Archives og er kun givet som en historisk reference. Det er et øjebliksbillede af enheder og deres placeringer på det tidspunkt, hvor listen blev udarbejdet. Det er ikke helt præcist, da enheder ofte var i overgang mellem de tidspunkter, listen blev udarbejdet og offentliggjort.

Hovedkvarter, fjortende luftvåben:

14. luftvåben, Hq Sq - Kunming
331. Airdrome Sq - Tsuyung
308. bombe gruppe (H), Hq - Hsingching
375. bombe Sq (H) - Hsingching
374. bombe Sq (H) - Kwanghan
425th Bomb Sq (H) - Kwanghan
373. bombe Sq (H) - Luliang
490. bombe Sq (M) - Hanchung
16. kampkameraenhed - Kunming
11. Combat Cargo Sq - Tsuyung
907. ingeniør Hq Co AF - Kunming
1389. Military Police Co, Avn - Enroute from India
1390. Military Police Co, Avn - Enroute from India
18. Foto Intelligence Det - Kunming
35. Foto Reconnaissance Sq - Chanyi
21. Foto Reconnaissance Sq - Kunming
4. fototekniske enhed - Kunming
2082. Quartermaster Truck Co, Avn - Chengkung
2124th Quartermaster Truck Co, Avn - Enroute fra Indien
2125th Quartermaster Truck Co, Avn - Enroute fra Indien
2459. Quartermaster Truck Co, Avn - Enroute fra Indien
5. Radio Sq, Mobile - Kunming
Co C, 559. Signal AW Bn - Kunming
720. Signal AW Co - Enroute fra Indien
396. Signal Co, Avn - Kunming
1377. Signal Co, Wing - Enroute fra Indien
330. Signal Co, Wing - Shwangliu
1712. Signal Service Bn - Kunming
24. statistiske kontrolenhed - Kunming
12. Tactical Air Commuications Sq - Kunming
1. taktiske luftkommunikation Sq - Luliang
322. Troop Carrier Sq - Kunming
27th Troop Carrier Sq (Attd to 69th CW) - Chengkung

Hovedkvarter, 69. sammensatte fløj - Kunming:

1st Air Base Communications Det (Sp) - Kunming
3rd Air Cargo Resupply Det - Kunming
19. forbindelsesplads - Chengkung
51st Fighter Group, Hq - Kunming
16. Fighter Sq - Chengkung
25th Fighter Sq - Yunnanyi
26. Fighter Sq - Kunming
449th Fighter Sq (TE) - Chengkung
322. Fighter Control Sq - Kunming
341st Bomb Group (M), Hq - Yangkai
11. bombe Sq (M) - Yangkai
22. bombe Sq (M) - Yangkai
491st Bomb Sq (M) - Yangkai

Hovedkvarter, 68. sammensatte fløj - Luliang:

23. Fighter Group, Hq - Luliang
74. fighter Sq - Luliang
75th Fighter Sq - Luliang
76. fighter Sq - Luliang
118. Tactical Recon Sq - Chengkung
23. Fighter Control Sq - Luliang

Hovedkvarter, 312. jagerfløj - Shwangliu:

7. luftbase kommunikation Det (Sp) - Shwangliu
81st Fighter Group, Hq - Fungwanshan
91. jagerplads - Fungwanshan
92. Fighter Sq - Fungwanshan
311th Fighter Group, Hq - Pungchacheng
528th Fighter Sq - Pungchacheng
529th Fighter Sq - Pungchacheng
530th Fighter Sq - Kwenghan
317. Fighter Control Sq - Shwangliu
426th Night Fighter Sq - Shwangliu
843. AAA AW Bn - Hsingching

Hovedkvarter, kinesisk -amerikansk sammensat fløj - Peishiyi:

3rd Fighter Group, Hq - Ankang
7. Fighter Sq - Ankang
8. Fighter Sq - Ankang
28. Fighter Sq - Ankang
32. Fighter Sq - Hanchung

5th Fighter Group, Hq - Chihkiang
17th Fighter Sq - Chihkiang
26. fighter Sq - Chihkiang
27. Fighter Sq - Chihkiang
29. Fighter Sq - Chihkiang

Vedhæftede enheder:

Army Postal Unit 430 (attd to 68th Comp Wg) - Luliang
Flight C, 821st Medical Air Evac Sq - Kunming
3363. Signal Service Bn - Kunming

14. luftvåbenstjenestekommando:

Hovedkvarter, 14. luftvåbenstjenestekommando - Kunming

Station Hospital (P), APO 210 - Chengtu
235. Medicinsk Apotek, Avn - Chengtu
Kunming Army Air Base - Kunming
90th Airdrome Sq - Kunming
1211th Military Police Co, Avn - Kunming
Hq, Ingeniørdistrikt 1 - Kunming
Hq, Engineer District 2 - Chengtu
Hq, Engineer District 3 - Luliang
Hq, Engineer District 4 - Peishiyi
234. Medicinsk Apotek, Avn - Luliang
1891. ingeniør Avn Bn - Mengtze

Hq & amp Hq Sq, 12. luftservicegruppe - Peishiyi

396th Air Service Sq - Liangshan
397th Air Service Sq - Peishiyi
1835. Ordnance Supply & amp Maint Co, Avn - Peishiyi
1836. Ordnance Supply & amp Maint Co, Avn - Liangshan
2122nd Quartermaster Truck Co, Avn - Peishiyi
1066th Quartermaster Co, Service Group, Avn - Peishiyi
1102nd Signal Co, Service Group, Avn - Peishiyi

Hq & amp Hq Sq, 14. luftservicegruppe - Chanyi

3rd Air Base Communications Det (Sp) - Luliang
10th Air Base Communications Det (Sp) - Chanyi
407th Air Service Sq - Luliang
555th Air Service Sq - Tsingchen
17th Airways Det - Chanyi
1544. Ordnance Supply & amp Maint Co, Avn - Tsingchen
1545. Ordnance Supply & amp Maint Co, Avn - Luliang
1077th Quartermaster Co, Service Group, Avn - Chanyi
2121st Quartermaster Truck Co, Avn - Chanyi
1157. Signal Co, Service Group, Avn - Luliang

Hq & amp Hq Sq, 68th Air Service Group - Chengkung

12th Air Service Sq - Chengkung
54th Air Service Sq - Chengkung
2nd Air Base Communications Det (Sp) - Chengkung
5th Air Base Communications Det (Sp) - Yunnanyi
6. luftbase kommunikation Det (Sp) - Yangkai
15. Airways Det - Chengkung
18th Airways Det - Yunnanyi
232. Medicinsk Apotek, Avn - Yunnanyi
1760. Ordnance Supply & amp Maint Co, Avn - Yangkai
1803. Ordnance Supply & amp Maint Co, Avn - Kunming
1151st Quartermaster Co, Service Group, Avn - Kunming
1989. Quartermaster Truck Co, Avn - Chengkung
1088. Signal Co, Servicegruppe, Avn - Chengkung

Hq & amp Hq Sq, 301. Air Depot Group - Kunming

69. depotreparation Sq - Kunming
315. Depot Supply Sq - Kunming
8. medicinske forsyningsplat, Avn - Kunming
472. Quartermaster Plat, Air Depot Gp - Kunming
885. Signal Co, Depot, Avn - Kunming

Hq & amp Hq Sq, 315. Air Service Group - Hsingching

338. Air Service Sq - Hsingching
358. Air Service Sq - Hsingching
8. Airdrome Sq - Hsingching
8th Air Base Communications Det (Sp) - Hsingching
9th Air Base Communications Det (Sp) - Kwanghan
16th Airways Det - Hsingching
36. Malariaundersøgelse Det - Hsingching
86. Veterinær Det - Hsingching
231. Medicinsk Apotek, Avn - Hsingching
233. medicinsk apotek, Avn - Kwanghan
1364th Military Police Co, Avn - Hsingching
1369th Military Police Co, Avn - Chengtu
1641st Ordnance Supply & amp Maint Co, Avn - Fungwanshan
1682. Ordnance Supply & amp Maint Co, Avn - Hsingching
1139th Quartermaster Co, Service Group, Avn - Hsingching
1980. Quartermaster Truck Co, Avn - Hsingching
1049. Signal Co, Servicegruppe, Avn - Hsingching

Andre enheder:

Ankang, Chanyi, Chaotung, Chengkung, Chihkiang, Chiuling-Po, Enshih, Hanchung, Hsian, Hsingching, Ipin, Kunming, Kwanghan, Leifeng, Lanchow, Laowhangpin, Liangshan, Likiang, Lukiang, Luliang, Mengshih, Mengtze, Paengt Posch, Shwengliu, Sitkeng, Suchow, Szemao, Tihwa, Tsuyung, Tushan, Yangkai, Yenan og Yunnanyi.

158. AACS Squadron, med Dets på følgende baser:


14. maj 1945 - Historie

En post fra Eva Ginzová's dagbog fra 14. maj 1945, hvor hun beskriver frigørelsen af ​​Theresienstadt -ghettoen og hendes tilbagevenden til sit hjem i Prag.

14. maj 1945

I går formiddag (3. maj) kom jeg hjem igen. Petr var ikke hjemme (jeg håbede i hemmelighed, at han ville være det). Vi forventer ham nu hver dag, for at han vender tilbage eller i det mindste har nogle nyheder om ham. Mor ser godt ud, gudskelov.

Russerne besatte os den 8. maj klokken halv ni om natten. Jeg var på mit værelse, da jeg pludselig hørte jubel og råb: ”Længe leve den sejrrige Røde Hær!” De tog til Prag for at hjælpe. Det er svært at beskrive, hvad der skete der - tyskere myrdede tjekkere, tjekkere myrdede tyskere. Jeg er glad for, at jeg ikke var her, da det skete. - Jeg sover og spiser hele dagen, ikke andet.

Dette er slutningen på min dagbog, da jeg kun vil have mine minder fra Terezín i den. Men når Petr kommer tilbage, skriver jeg det her.

HJEM 1

[fodnote = 1]: Alexandra Zapruder, red., Bjærgede sider: Unge skribenters dagbøger om Holocaust, 2. udgave (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015) 189. [fodnote]


Verdenspolitik

Fra Arbejdsaktion, Bind. IX nr. 20, 14. maj 1945, s. ك.
Transskriberet & amp markeret af Einde O ’ Callaghan for Encyclopaedia of Trotskyism On-Line (ETOL).

“Enough ” er for meget

ILYA EHRENBURG, indtil for nylig den officielle Kreml-hadhandler mod det tyske folk, er faldet fra nåde. Han er blevet taget til opgave for at nå for meget til sig selv i en artikel med titlen Nok hvor han forsøgte at forklare, hvorfor det tyske folk flygtede fra den fremrykkende russiske hær i stedet for at byde det velkommen som en befrielse.

Vi skal kun huske på, at det var Ehrenburg, der med officiel sanktion sagde, at russerne kom til Tyskland, ikke som befriere, men som erobrere, og at de tyskere, der ville byde den fremrykkende russiske hær velkommen, ville være de første mennesker, vi ville skyde. ”

I sin seneste artikel udtaler han, at alle tyskere er de samme, det vil sige fascister og mordere, og at de alle skal holdes lige ansvarlige for Hitlers forbrydelser. Han skriver, at det tyske folk er en kæmpe bande, der spredes og flygter, nu hvor tiden er kommet til at svare for deres gerninger. ”
 

De kom som erobrere

For disse udtalelser bliver Ehrenburg, der blot udførte ordrer, nu irettesat i den russiske presse. At de tyske masser ikke entusiastisk tog imod Stalins hære, kan ikke nægtes, ikke engang i Stalins officielle presse, som har været i stand til at skabe alle slags fabler. De tyske masser, uanset hvad de måtte mene om selve Ruslands natur, ved en ting: Stalins hære kommer ikke som befriere, men som erobrere.

De kender dette fra stierne i alle Ehrenburgs, og de ved det fra de tidligere gerninger fra Stalins hærer, da de besatte det ene land efter det andet. De kender det fra forslaget fra den russiske herskende klasse om at tage mindst ti millioner tyske arbejdere i slaveri. Og de har ikke glemt, at Stalin er Ex-partner til Hitler og har sit eget system med koncentrationslejre, torturkamre, rammer og tilståelsesret.

Den russiske presse forsøger nu at bortforklare, at det tyske folk flygtede efter de russiske hærers tilgang. De stalinistiske forfattere er blevet instrueret i at sige, at alt dette er sket som følge af et kompliment fra nazisterne, der forsøgte at så intriger og uenighed blandt de allierede ved at skræmme de tyske masser om russerne og gøre dem mindre bekymrede over vestlige allierede.

Ehrenburg er hvor modbevist for at have samlet alle tyskerne i en masse. Nej, får han nu at vide, ikke alle tyskerne vil blive straffet eller udryddet. Det er alt sammen en nazistisk løgn, kan du se. Og Ehrenburg hjælper nazisterne ved at skrive, som han gør. Årsagen til denne ændring bør søges i de stigende vanskeligheder med de tre store.

Intet i kritikken af ​​Ehrenburg afviser dog det russiske forslag om ti millioner tyske slaver. Der er ingen indikation af, hvem de “gode ” tyskere er, undtagen en forbigående henvisning til, at de, der opfører sig loyalt over for de allierede hære, ikke er truet. ”

Ændring af linjen

Hvor alvorlige forskellene mellem Rusland på den ene side og Storbritannien og USA på den anden side kan være, afspejles i de endnu forsigtige ord fra Earl Browder, amerikansk talerør for Joseph Stalin. Konferencen i San Francisco afslører dagligt disse dybtliggende konflikter mellem de tre store i deres ønske om at dominere det europæiske kontinent. Striden om Polen kan meget vel være det afgørende spørgsmål.

Skulle der opstå et brud mellem russisk og amerikansk politik, vil kommunistpartiet i dette land igen “ ændre linjen. ” Og Earl Browder er i sin egenskab af leder for dette parti den officielle linjeskifter.


Oprettelse af Israel, 1948

Den 14. maj 1948 erklærede David Ben-Gurion, chefen for det jødiske agentur, oprettelsen af ​​staten Israel. USAs præsident Harry S. Truman genkendte den nye nation samme dag.

Selvom USA støttede Balfour -erklæringen fra 1917, som favoriserede etableringen af ​​et jødisk nationalhjem i Palæstina, havde præsident Franklin D. Roosevelt forsikret araberne i 1945 om, at USA ikke ville gribe ind uden at have hørt både jøderne og araberne i den region. Briterne, der havde et kolonialmandat for Palæstina indtil maj 1948, modsatte sig både oprettelsen af ​​en jødisk stat og en arabisk stat i Palæstina samt ubegrænset immigration af jødiske flygtninge til regionen. Storbritannien ønskede at bevare gode forbindelser med araberne for at beskytte dets vitale politiske og økonomiske interesser i Palæstina.

Kort efter at præsident Truman tiltrådte, udpegede han flere eksperter til at studere det palæstinensiske spørgsmål. I sommeren 1946 nedsatte Truman et særligt kabinetudvalg under formandskab af Dr. Henry F. Grady, en assisterende udenrigsminister, der indledte forhandlinger med et parallelt britisk udvalg for at diskutere Palæstinas fremtid. I maj 1946 meddelte Truman sin godkendelse af en anbefaling om at optage 100.000 fordrevne personer i Palæstina og erklærede i oktober offentligt sin støtte til oprettelsen af ​​en jødisk stat. I hele 1947 undersøgte FN's særlige kommission for Palæstina det palæstinensiske spørgsmål og anbefalede opdelingen af ​​Palæstina i en jødisk og en arabisk stat. Den 29. november 1947 vedtog FN resolution 181 (også kendt som partitionsresolutionen), der ville opdele Storbritanniens tidligere palæstinensiske mandat i jødiske og arabiske stater i maj 1948, når det britiske mandat var planlagt til at ophøre. I henhold til resolutionen ville området med religiøs betydning omkring Jerusalem forblive et corpus separatum under international kontrol administreret af FN.

Selvom USA støttede resolution 181, anbefalede det amerikanske udenrigsministerium oprettelsen af ​​et FN -kuratorskab med grænser for jødisk immigration og en opdeling af Palæstina i separate jødiske og arabiske provinser, men ikke stater. Udenrigsministeriet, der var bekymret over muligheden for en stigende sovjetisk rolle i den arabiske verden og muligheden for at begrænse de arabiske olieproducerende nationers olieforsyninger til USA, frarådede amerikansk intervention på jødernes vegne. Senere, da datoen for britisk afgang fra Palæstina nærmede sig, blev Udenrigsministeriet bekymret over muligheden for en altomfattende krig i Palæstina, da arabiske stater truede med at angribe næsten, så snart FN vedtog opdelingsresolutionen.

På trods af voksende konflikt mellem palæstinensiske arabere og palæstinensiske jøder og trods Udenrigsministeriets godkendelse af et kuratorskab besluttede Truman i sidste ende at anerkende staten Israel.


LDS Kirkehistorie

- 21. maj 1945
På et særligt møde i De Tolvs Kvorum i templet i Salt Lake blev det første præsidentskab reorganiseret med præsident George Albert Smith ordineret og adskilt som Kirkens ottende præsident. Præsidenter J. Reuben Clark Jr. og David O. McKay, rådgivere for præsident Grant, blev også kaldet som rådgivere for præsident Smith. (1)

George Albert Smith blev præsident for Kirken. (2)

George Albert Smith ordinerede og adskilte sig som Kirkens ottende præsident. (3)

George Albert Smith blev præsident for Kirken. (8)

[De tolvs kvorum] Det Første Præsidentskab er reorganiseret med George Albert Smiths præsident, J. Reuben Clark første rådgiver og David O. McKay andenrådgiver. George F. Richards bliver præsident for Kvorum. (6)

- 16. juli 1945
Det Første Præsidentskab godkendte månedlige præstedømmemøder og hjælpeledermøder, hvis de kunne afholdes uden at overtræde regeringens restriktioner vedrørende brug af gas og gummi. (1)


Indhold

Den 19. februar 1945 invaderede USA Iwo Jima som en del af sin ø-hop-strategi for at besejre Japan. Iwo Jima var oprindeligt ikke et mål, men Filippinernes relativt hurtige fald efterlod amerikanerne med en længere ventetid end forventet før den planlagte invasion af Okinawa. Iwo Jima ligger halvvejs mellem Japan og Mariana-øerne, hvor amerikanske langdistancebombefly var baseret, og blev brugt af japanerne som en varslingsstation, der sender advarsler om indkommende amerikanske bombefly til det japanske hjemland. Amerikanerne svækkede efter at have fanget øen det japanske system til tidlig varsling og brugte det som en nødlandingsstrimmel for beskadigede bombefly. [5]

Iwo Jima er en vulkansk ø, formet som en trapez. Marinesoldater på øen beskrev det som "en stor, grå svinekotelette". [6] Øen var stærkt befæstet, og de invaderende marinesoldater led store tab. Politisk set er øen en del af prefekturen i Tokyo. Det ville være den første japanske fædreland, der blev fanget af amerikanerne, og det var et æresag for japanerne at forhindre fangsten. [7]

Øen domineres af Mount Suribachi, en 166 m sovende vulkanskegle på øens sydspids. Taktisk set var toppen af ​​Suribachi en af ​​de vigtigste steder på øen. Fra dette udsigtspunkt kunne de japanske forsvarere spotte artilleri præcist på amerikanerne - især landingsstrendene. Japanerne kæmpede det meste af kampen fra underjordiske bunkers og pillboxes. Det var almindeligt for marinesoldater at deaktivere en pillbox ved hjælp af granater eller flammekastere, kun for at komme under fornyet ild fra den et par minutter senere, efter at erstatnings japansk infanteri ankom til pillboxen gennem en tunnel. Den amerikanske indsats koncentrerede sig om at isolere og indfange Suribachi først, et mål, der blev opnået den 23. februar, fire dage efter at slaget begyndte. På trods af at han fangede Suribachi, fortsatte slaget med at rase i mange dage, og øen ville ikke blive erklæret "sikker" før 31 dage senere, den 26. marts [8]

Der var to amerikanske flag rejst oven på Mount Suribachi, den 23. februar 1945. Fotografiet, Rosenthal tog, var faktisk af den anden flaghøjning, hvor et større udskiftningsflag blev rejst af forskellige marinesoldater end dem, der hævede det første flag. [9]: xix-xxi

Hævning af det første flag Rediger

Et amerikansk flag blev først rejst oven på Suribachi -bjerget kort efter, at bjergtoppen blev fanget omkring kl. 10:20 den 23. februar 1945. [9]: 48

Oberstløjtnant Chandler W. Johnson, kommandør for 2. bataljon, 28. marineregiment, 5. marinedivision, beordrede marinekaptajn Dave Severance, chef for Easy Company, 2. bataljon, 28. marinesoldater, at sende en deling for at gribe og indtage toppen af ​​Mount. Suribachi. [11] Førsteløjtnant Harold G. Schrier, administrerende officer i Easy Company, som havde erstattet den sårede tredjeplutonschef, John Keith Wells, [12] meldte sig frivilligt til at lede en 40-mands kamppatrulje op ad bjerget. Oberstløjtnant Johnson (eller 1. løjtnant George G. Wells, bataljonsadjutanten, hvis opgave det var at bære flaget) havde taget flaget på 54 x 28 tommer/140 x 71 centimeter fra bataljonens transportskib, USS Missoula, og overrakte flaget til Schrier. [13] [14] Johnson sagde til Schrier: "Hvis du kommer til toppen, så sæt den op." Schrier samlede patruljen klokken 8.00 for at begynde stigningen op ad bjerget.

På trods af det store antal japanske tropper i nærheden nåede Schrier -patruljen frem til kraterets rand omkring klokken 10:15, da de var kommet under lidt eller ingen fjendeskud, da japanerne på det tidspunkt blev bombarderet. [15] Flaget blev fastgjort af Schrier og to marinesoldater til et japansk jernvandrør, der blev fundet på toppen, og flagstaben blev hævet og plantet af Schrier, assisteret af delingssergent Ernest Thomas og sergent Oliver Hansen (pelotonguiden) omkring kl. : 30 am [10] (Den 25. februar under et CBS -presseinterview ombord på flagskibet USS Eldorado om flaghævningen, udtalte Thomas, at han, Schrier og Hansen faktisk havde hevet flaget.) [16] Hævningen af ​​de nationale farver medførte umiddelbart en høj jubelreaktion fra marinerne, søfolkene og kystvagterne på stranden nedenfor og fra mændene på skibene nær stranden. Den høje støj fra servicemændene og eksplosionerne fra skibshornene advarede japanerne, der indtil nu havde opholdt sig i deres hulebunkere. Schrier og hans mænd nær flagstaben blev derefter beskudt af japanske tropper, men marinerne eliminerede hurtigt truslen. [9]: 15 Schrier blev senere tildelt Navy Cross for at være frivillig til at tage patruljen op på Mount Suribachi og hæve det amerikanske flag og en Silver Star -medalje for en heroisk aktion i marts, mens han var kommando over D Company, 2/28 Marines on Iwo Jima.

Fotografier af det første flag, der blev fløjet på Mount Suribachi, blev taget af stabssergent Louis R. Lowery af Læderhals magasin, der fulgte patruljen op ad bjerget, og andre fotografer bagefter. [17] [18] Andre involveret i den første flagrejsning omfatter korporal Charles W. Lindberg (som også var med til at hæve flaget), [19] Privates First Class James Michels, Harold Schultz, Raymond Jacobs (F Company radioman), Private Phil Ward og marinekorpsmanden John Bradley. [20] [21] Dette flag var imidlertid for lille til let at kunne ses fra den nordlige side af Suribachi -bjerget, hvor hårde kampe ville fortsætte i flere dage.

Marinesekretæren, James Forrestal, havde den foregående nat besluttet, at han ville gå i land og overvære den sidste fase af kampen om bjerget. Nu, under en streng forpligtelse til at tage imod ordrer fra Howlin 'Mad Smith, kørte sekretæren i land i selskab med den stumpe, jordiske general. Deres båd rørte ved stranden lige efter flaget gik op, og stemningen blandt den øverste kommando blev jublende. Forrestal stirrede opad i den røde, hvide og blå plet og bemærkede til Smith: "Holland, hævningen af ​​dette flag på Suribachi betyder et marinekorps i de næste fem hundrede år". [22] [23]

Forrestal blev så optaget af øjeblikkets inderlighed, at han besluttede, at han ville have den anden bataljons flag til at flyve på Mount Suribachi som en souvenir. Nyheden om dette ønske passede ikke godt hos 2. bataljonchef Chandler Johnson, hvis temperament var lige så ildfuldt som Howlin Mads. "For helvede med det!" obersten spyttede, da beskeden nåede ham. Flaget tilhørte bataljonen, hvad Johnson angik. Han besluttede at sikre det så hurtigt som muligt og sendte sin assisterende operationsofficer, løjtnant Ted Tuttle, til stranden for at få et erstatningsflag. Som en eftertanke kaldte Johnson efter Tuttle: "Og gør den til en større." [24]

Hævning af det andet flag Rediger

Fotografiet taget af Rosenthal var den anden flagrejsning på toppen af ​​Mount Suribachi, den 23. februar 1945. [9]: xix

På ordre fra oberst Chandler Johnson - videregivet af Easy Companys chef, kaptajn Dave Severance - skulle sergent Michael Strank, en af ​​Anden Platons gruppeledere, tage tre medlemmer af hans riffelgruppe (korporal Harlon H. Block og Privates First Class Franklin R . Sousley og Ira H. Hayes) og klatre op ad Mount Suribachi for at hejse et udskiftningsflag ovenpå tog de tre forsyninger eller lagde telefonledning på vej til toppen. Afsked sendte også Private First Class Rene A. Gagnon, bataljonløberen (messenger) for Easy Company, til kommandoposten for friske SCR-300 walkie-talkie-batterier, der skulle tages til toppen. [25]

Imens havde løjtnant Albert Theodore Tuttle [24] under Johnsons ordre fundet et stort (96 x 56 tommer) flag i det nærliggende tanklandingsskib USS LST-779. Han tog sin vej tilbage til kommandoposten og gav den til Johnson. Johnson gav den til gengæld til Rene Gagnon med ordre om at tage den op til Schrier på Suribachi -bjerget og hæve den. [26] Begivenhedens officielle Marine Corps historie er, at Tuttle modtog flaget fra Navy Ensign Alan Wood fra USS LST-779, som igen havde modtaget flaget fra et forsyningsdepot i Pearl Harbor. [27] [28] [29] Afsked havde bekræftet, at det andet større flag i virkeligheden blev leveret af Alan Wood, selvom Wood ikke kunne genkende nogen af ​​billederne af det andet flags raisers som Gagnon. [30] Flaget blev syet af Mabel Sauvageau, en arbejder på "flagloftet" på Mare Island Naval Shipyard. [31]

Førsteløjtnant George Greeley Wells, som havde været den anden bataljon, 28. marinesoldutant, der officielt havde ansvaret for de to amerikanske flag, der blev fløjet på Mount Suribachi, udtalte i New York Times i 1991, at oberstløjtnant Johnson beordrede Wells til at få det andet flag, og at Wells sendte Rene Gagnon, hans bataljonsløber, til skibene på land for at få flaget. Wells sagde, at Gagnon vendte tilbage med et flag og gav det til ham, og at Gagnon tog dette flag op på Mount Suribachi med en besked til Schrier om at hæve det og sende det andet flag ned med Gagnon. Wells udtalte, at han modtog det første flag tilbage fra Gagnon og sikrede det på marinens hovedkvarterskommando. Wells udtalte også, at han havde afleveret det første flag til løjtnant Schrier for at indtage Mount Suribachi. [13]

Coast Guard Historians kontor anerkender påstandene fra den tidligere amerikanske kystvagtmester Robert Resnick, der tjente ombord på USS Duval County på Iwo Jima. "Inden han døde i november 2004, sagde Resnick, at Gagnon kom ombord på LST-758 [32] om morgenen den 23. februar på udkig efter et flag. [33] Resnick sagde, at han tog et flag fra en slagkasse og bad om tilladelse fra hans skibs kommandant Løjtnant Felix Molenda for at donere det. [34] Resnick tav om sin deltagelse indtil 2001. " [35] [36]

Rosenthals fotografi Rediger

Gagnon, Strank og Stranks tre marinesoldater nåede toppen af ​​bjerget omkring middagstid uden at blive affyret. Rosenthal, sammen med marinefotografer, sergent Bill Genaust (som blev dræbt i aktion efter flaghævningen) og Private First Class Bob Campbell [37] klatrede på dette tidspunkt Suribachi. På vej op mødte trioen Lowery, der havde fotograferet den første flaghøjning, der kom ned. De overvejede at vende om, men Lowery fortalte dem, at topmødet var et glimrende udsigtspunkt, hvorfra man kunne tage fotografier. [38] De tre fotografer nåede topmødet, da marinerne lagde flaget fast på et gammelt japansk vandrør.

Rosenthal satte sit Speed ​​Graphic-kamera på jorden (indstillet til 1/400 sek lukkerhastighed, med f-stop mellem 8 og 11 og Agfa-film [39] [40]), så han kunne bunke sten til at stå på for et bedre udsyn punkt. På den måde savnede han næsten skuddet. Marinesoldaterne begyndte at hæve flaget. Da han indså, at han var ved at gå glip af handlingen, svingede Rosenthal hurtigt sit kamera og snappede fotografiet uden at bruge søgeren. [41] Ti år efter flaghævningen skrev Rosenthal:

Ud af øjenkrogen havde jeg set mændene starte flaget op. Jeg svingede mit kamera og skød scenen. Sådan blev billedet taget, og når du tager et sådant billede, kommer du ikke væk og siger, at du fik et godt skud. Du ved det ikke. [40]

Sergent Genaust, der stod næsten skulder-til-skulder med Rosenthal cirka tre meter væk, [40] optog film i løbet af den anden flaghøjning. Hans film fanger den anden begivenhed i en næsten identisk vinkel til Rosenthal's skud. Af de seks flagløftere på billedet-Ira Hayes, Harold Schultz (identificeret i juni 2016), Michael Strank, Franklin Sousley, Harold Keller (identificeret i 2019) og Harlon Block-kun Hayes, Keller (marinekorporal Rene Gagnon var forkert identificeret på Rosenthal flagrejsende foto), og Schultz (Navy Corpsman John Bradley blev forkert identificeret) overlevede slaget. [2] Strank og Block blev dræbt den 1. marts, seks dage efter flaghøjningen, Strank af en skal, muligvis affyret fra en offshore amerikansk destroyer og Block et par timer senere af en mørtelrunde. [9]: 18 Sousley blev skudt og dræbt af en japansk snigskytte den 21. marts, få dage før øen blev erklæret sikker. [9]: 23

Efter flaghævningen sendte Rosenthal sin film til Guam for at blive udviklet og trykt. [42] George Tjaden fra Hendricks, Minnesota, var sandsynligvis teknikeren, der trykte den. [43] Da han så det, udbrød Associated Press (AP) fotoredaktør John Bodkin "Her er en for altid!" og overførte straks billedet til AP -hovedkvarteret i New York City kl. 7:00, Eastern War Time. [44] Fotografiet blev hurtigt taget op af ledningen af ​​hundredvis af aviser. It "was distributed by Associated Press within seventeen and one-half hours after Rosenthal shot it—an astonishingly fast turnaround time in those days." [45]

However, the photograph was not without controversy. Following the second flag-raising, Rosenthal had the Marines of Easy Company pose for a group shot, the "gung-ho" shot. [46] A few days after the photograph was taken, Rosenthal—back on Guam—was asked if he had posed the photograph. Thinking the questioner was referring to the 'gung-ho' photograph, he replied "Sure." After that, Robert Sherrod, a Time-Life correspondent, told his editors in New York that Rosenthal had staged the flag-raising photograph. Time's radio show, Time Views the News, broadcast a report, charging that "Rosenthal climbed Suribachi after the flag had already been planted. . Like most photographers [he] could not resist reposing his characters in historic fashion." [47] As a result of this report, Rosenthal was repeatedly accused of staging the photograph or covering up the first flag-raising. En New York Times book reviewer even went so far as to suggest revoking his Pulitzer Prize. [47] In the following decades, Rosenthal repeatedly and vociferously denied claims that the flag-raising was staged. "I don't think it is in me to do much more of this sort of thing . I don't know how to get across to anybody what 50 years of constant repetition means," he said in 1995. [47]

President Franklin D. Roosevelt, upon seeing Rosenthal's flag-raising photograph, saw its potential to use for the upcoming Seventh War Loan Drive to help fund the war effort. He then ordered the flag-raisers to be identified and sent to Washington, D.C. after the fighting on the island ended (March 26, 1945). [9] : xviii

Rosenthal did not take the names of those in the photograph. On April 7, Rene Gagnon was the first of the second "flag-raisers" to arrive in Washington, D.C. Using an enlargement of the photograph that did not show the faces of the flag-raisers, he named himself, Henry Hansen, Franklin Sousley, John Bradley and Michael Strank, as being in the photograph. He initially refused to name Ira Hayes, as Hayes did not want the publicity and threatened him with physical harm. [48] However, upon being summoned to Marine headquarters and told that refusal to name the last flag-raiser was a serious crime, he identified the sixth flag-raiser as Hayes.

President Roosevelt died on April 12, 1945. On April 19, Bradley (then on crutches) and Hayes arrived in Washington, D.C. On April 20, the three surviving second flag-raisers, identified then as Gagnon, Bradley, and Hayes, met President Truman in the White House. On May 9, during a ceremony at the nation's capitol, the three men raised the original second flag to initiate the bond tour which began on May 11 in New York City. On May 24, Hayes was taken off the tour due to problems caused by drinking alcohol and ordered back to his company and regiment which had returned to Hawaii. Gagnon and Bradley completed the tour which ended on July 4 in Washington, D.C. The bond drive was a success, raising $26.3 billion, twice the tour's goal. [49]

Harlon Block and Henry Hansen Edit

Gagnon misidentified Corporal Harlon Block as Sergeant Henry O. "Hank" Hansen in Rosenthal's photo (both were killed in action on March 1). Initially, Bradley concurred with all of Gagnon's identifications. On April 8, 1945, the Marine Corps released the identification of five of the six flag raisers, including Hansen rather than Block (Sousley's identity was temporarily withheld pending notification of his family of his death during the battle.) Block's mother, Belle Block, refused to accept the official identification, noting that she had "changed so many diapers on that boy's butt, I know it's my boy." [50] When Hayes was interviewed about the identities of the flag raisers and shown a photo of the flag raising by a Marine public relations officer on April 19, he told the officer that it was definitely Harlon Block and not Hansen at the base of the flagpole. The lieutenant colonel then told Hayes that the identifications had already been officially released, and ordered Hayes to keep silent about it [51] (during the investigation, the colonel denied Hayes told him about Block). Block, Sousley, and Hayes were close friends in the same squad of Second Platoon, E Company, while Hansen, who helped raise the first flag, was a member of Third Platoon, E Company.

In 1946, Hayes hitchhiked to Texas and informed Block's parents that their son had, in fact, been one of the six flag raisers. [52] Block's mother, Belle, immediately sent the letter that Hayes had given her to her congressional representative Milton West. West, in turn, forwarded the letter to Marine Corps Commandant Alexander Vandegrift, who ordered an investigation. John Bradley (formerly in Third Platoon with Hansen), upon being shown the evidence (Hansen, a former Paramarine, wore his large parachutist boots in an exposed manner on Iwo Jima), agreed that it was probably Block and not Hansen. [53] In January 1947, the Marine Corps officially announced it was Block in the photograph and not Hansen at the base of the flagpole. Hayes also was named as being in the far left position of the flag raisers replacing the position Sousley was determined to have had up until then Sousley was now in back of and to the right of Strank (in 2016, Harold Schutz was named in this position and Sousley was named in the position where Bradley was named).

Ira remembered what Rene Gagnon and John Bradley could not have remembered, because they did not join the little cluster until the last moment: that it was Harlon [Block], Mike [Strank], Franklin [Sousley] and [Hayes] who had ascended Suribachi midmorning to lay telephone wire it was Rene [Gagnon] who had come along with the replacement flag. Hansen had not been part of this action. [54]

Harold H. Schultz and John Bradley Edit

On June 23, 2016, the Marine Corps publicly announced that Marine Corporal (then Private First Class) Harold Schultz was one of the flag-raisers and Navy corpsman John Bradley was not one of the flag-raisers in Rosenthal's second flag-raising photograph. Harold Schultz was identified as being in Franklin Sousley's position to the right and in front of Ira Hayes, and Sousley was identified as being in Bradley's position to the right and behind Rene Gagnon (identified as Harold Keller in 2019) behind Harlon Block at the base of the flagpole. [2] Bradley and Schultz had been present when both flags were actually raised, while Sousley was only on Mount Suribachi when he helped raise the second flag. Schultz was also part of the group of Marines and corpsmen who posed for Rosenthal's second "gung ho" photo.

Bradley, who died in 1994, seldom did an interview about the famous second flag-raising, occasionally deflecting questions by claiming he had forgotten. [55] He changed his story numerous times, saying that he raised or pitched in to raise the flag, and also that he was on, and not on, Mount Suribachi when the first flag was raised. [56] Within his family, it was considered a taboo subject, and when they received calls or invitations to speak on certain holidays, they were told to say he was away fishing at his cottage. At the time of Bradley's death, his son James said that he knew almost nothing about his father's wartime experiences. [50] James Bradley spent four years interviewing and researching the topic and published a nonfiction book entitled Vores fædres flag (2000) about the flag-raising and its participants. [57] The book, which was a bestseller, was later adapted into a 2006 film of the same name, directed by Clint Eastwood.

After being honorably discharged, Schultz moved to California and made his career with the United States Postal Service. He died in 1995.

The possibility that any flag-raiser had been misidentified was publicly raised for the first time in November 2014 by Eric Krelle, an amateur historian and collector of World War II-era Marine Corps memorabilia, and an Irish citizen and amateur historian named Stephen Foley. [58] Studying other photographs taken that day and video footage, Krelle and Foley argued that Franklin Sousley was in the fourth position (left to right) instead of Bradley and Harold Schultz of Los Angeles (originally from Detroit) was in the second position, previously identified as Sousley. [58] Initially, Marine Corps historians and officials did not accept those findings, but began their own investigation. [59] On June 23, 2016, they confirmed Krelle's and Foley's findings, stating that Schultz was in Sousley's place, Sousley was standing next to Block, and that Bradley was not in the photo at all. [60] James Bradley has also changed his mind, stating that he no longer believes his father is depicted in the famous photograph. [61] [62] [63]

Harold Keller and Rene Gagnon Edit

On October 16, 2019, the Marine Corps announced that Marine Corporal Harold Keller was the flag-raiser previously identified as Rene Gagnon in the Rosenthal's photograph. Stephen Foley, filmmaker Dustin Spence, and Brent Westemeyer were key to this revised identification. Photos and video footage showed that the man (originally identified as Gagnon) had a wedding ring, which matched Keller, who had married in 1944 (Gagnon was not married at the time). The man also did not have a facial mole, as Gagnon did. Finally, a photo which captured the lowering of the first flag verified what Gagnon had looked like that day, which did not match the second man in the Rosenthal photo. [64]

Rosenthal's photograph was used as the basis for C. C. Beall's poster Now. All Together for the Seventh War Loan Drive (14 May - 30 June 1945). [9] : 63–5

Rosenthal's photograph won the 1945 Pulitzer Prize for Photography, the only photograph to win the prize in the same year it was taken. [65]

News pros were not the only ones greatly impressed by the photo. Navy Captain T.B. Clark was on duty at Patuxent Air Station in Maryland that Saturday when it came humming off the wire in 1945. He studied it for a minute, and then thrust it under the gaze of Navy Petty Officer Felix de Weldon. De Weldon was an Austrian immigrant schooled in European painting and sculpture. De Weldon could not take his eyes off the photo. In its classic triangular lines he recognized similarities with the ancient statues he had studied. He reflexively reached for some sculptor's clay and tools. With the photograph before him he labored through the night. Within 72 hours of the photo's release, he had replicated the six boys pushing a pole, raising a flag. [44] [66]

Upon seeing the finished model, the Marine Corps commandant had de Weldon assigned to the Marine Corps [67] until de Weldon was discharged from the navy after the war was over.

Starting in 1951, de Weldon was commissioned to design a memorial to the Marine Corps. It took de Weldon and hundreds of his assistants three years to finish it. Hayes, Gagnon, and Bradley, posed for de Weldon, who used their faces as a model. The three Marine flag raisers who did not survive the battle were sculpted from photographs. [68]

The flag-raising Rosenthal (and Genaust) photographed was the replacement flag/flagstaff for the first flag/flagstaff that was raised on Mount Suribachi on February 23, 1945. There was some resentment from former Marines of the original 40-man patrol that went up Mount Suribachi including by those involved with the first flag-raising, that they did not receive the recognition they deserved. These included Staff Sgt. Lou Lowery, who took the first photos of the first flag flying over Mt. Suribachi Charles W. Lindberg, who helped tie the first American flag to the first flagpole on Mount Suribachi (and who was, until his death in June 2007, one of the last living persons depicted in either flag-flying scene), [69] who complained for several years that he helped to raise the flag and "was called a liar and everything else. It was terrible" (because of all the recognition and publicity over and directed to the replacement flag-raisers and that flag-raising) [70] and Raymond Jacobs, photographed with the patrol commander around the base of the first flag flying over Mt. Suribachi, who complained until he died in 2008 that he was still not recognized by the Marine Corps by name as being the radioman in the photo.

The original Rosenthal photograph is currently in the possession of Roy H. Williams, who bought it from the estate of John Faber, the official historian for the National Press Photographers Association, who had received it from Rosenthal. [71] Both flags (from the first and second flag-raisings) are now located in the National Museum of the Marine Corps in Quantico, Virginia. [72]

Ira Hayes, following the war, was plagued with depression brought on by survivor guilt and became an alcoholic. His tragic life, and death in 1955 at the age of 32, were memorialized in the 1961 motion picture The Outsider, starring Tony Curtis as Hayes, and the folk song "The Ballad of Ira Hayes", written by Peter LaFarge and recorded by Johnny Cash in 1964. [73] Bob Dylan later covered the song, as did Kinky Friedman. [74] According to the song, after the war:

Then Ira started drinkin' hard
Jail was often his home
They'd let him raise the flag and lower it
Like you'd throw a dog a bone!
He died drunk early one mornin'
Alone in the land he fought to save
Two inches of water in a lonely ditch
Was a grave for Ira Hayes.

Rene Gagnon, his wife, and his son visited Tokyo and Mount Suribachi on Iwo Jima during the 20th anniversary of the battle of Iwo Jima in 1965. [75] After the war, he worked at Delta Air Lines as a ticket agent, opened his own travel agency, and was a maintenance director of an apartment complex in Manchester, New Hampshire. He died while at work in 1979, age 54. [25] [76]

In other media Edit

Rosenthal's photograph has been reproduced in a number of other formats. It appeared on 3.5 million posters for the seventh war bond drive. [47] It has also been reproduced with many unconventional media such as Lego bricks, butter, ice, Etch A Sketch and corn mazes. [77]

The Iwo Jima flag-raising has been depicted in other films including 1949's Sands of Iwo Jima (in which the three surviving flag raisers make a cameo appearance at the end of the film) and 1961's The Outsider, a biography of Ira Hayes starring Tony Curtis. [78]

In July 1945, the United States Postal Service released a postage stamp bearing the image. [79] The U.S. issued another stamp in 1995 showing the flag-raising as part of its 10-stamp series marking the 50th anniversary of World War II. [79] In 2005, the United States Mint released a commemorative silver dollar bearing the image.

A similar photograph was taken by Thomas E. Franklin of the Bergen Record in the immediate aftermath of the September 11 attacks. Officially known as Ground Zero Spirit, the photograph is perhaps better known as Raising the Flag at Ground Zero, and shows three firefighters raising a U.S. flag in the ruins of the World Trade Center shortly after 5 pm. [80] Painter Jamie Wyeth also painted a related image entitled September 11th based on this scene. It illustrates rescue workers raising a flag at Ground Zero. Other iconic photographs frequently compared include V–J day in Times Square, Into the Jaws of Death, Raising a flag over the Reichstag, og Raising of the Ink Flag. [81]

The highly recognizable image is one of the most parodied photographs in history. [77] Anti-war activists in the 1960s altered the flag to bear a peace symbol, as well as several anti-establishment artworks. [82] Edward Kienholz's Portable War Memorial in 1968 depicted faceless Marines raising the flag on an outdoor picnic table in a typical American consumerist environment of the 1960s. [83] [84] It was parodied again during the Iran hostage crisis of 1979 to depict the flag being planted into Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini's behind. [82] In the early 2000s, to represent gay pride, photographer Ed Freeman shot a photograph [85] for the cover of an issue of Frontiers magazine, reenacting the scene with a rainbow flag instead of an American flag. [86] Tid magazine came under fire in 2008 after altering the image for use on its cover, replacing the American flag with a tree for an issue focused on global warming. [82] The British Airlines Stewards and Stewardesses Association likewise came under criticism in 2010 for a poster depicting employees raising a flag marked "BASSA" at the edge of a runway. [82]

Among the smaller scale replicas of the Marine Corps War Memorial based on the flag raising is one also sculpted by Felix de Weldon at Marine Corps Recruit Depot Parris Island on the Peatross Parade Deck. For the finale of The Crucible, the Marines' 54-hour final training test, Marine recruits at Parris Island hike 9 miles to the statue as the sun rises and the flag is raised. They then are addressed on the flag raising and its meaning and are then awarded their Eagle, Globe and Anchor emblems by their drill instructors signifying them as full-fledged Marines. [87]


V-J Day

“It was too much death to contemplate, too much savagery and suffering and in August 1945 no one was counting. For those who had seen the face of battle and been in the camps and under the bombs—and had lived—there was a sense of immense relief.”

The Allied celebrations on Victory in Europe Day (V-E Day), on May 8, 1945, were subdued by the knowledge that war raged on in the Pacific. As the fighting ended in Europe, US troops were drawing a noose around the Japanese home islands. But there were ominous signs that Japan’s fierce resistance would continue. The battles for Iwo Jima and Okinawa during the first half of 1945 were marked by spectacular carnage, and Americans were chastened by the knowledge that Japan had never surrendered to a foreign power and that no Japanese military unit had surrendered during World War II.

After Okinawa fell to US forces on June 22, 1945, an invasion of the Japanese home islands was set to begin. But before the invasion was to take place, the most destructive war in history came to a shattering and rapid end. On August 6, the United States dropped the first atomic bomb over Hiroshima, ultimately killing as many as 140,000 people. Two days later, the Soviet Union declared war on Japan. Then, on August 9, the United States dropped a second atomic bomb over Nagasaki, ultimately killing approximately 70,000.

Finally recognizing that victory was impossible, the Japanese government accepted Allied surrender terms without qualifications on August 14, 1945. That same day, President Harry S. Truman announced from the White House that the Japanese acceptance met the terms laid down at the Potsdam Conference for unconditional surrender. As soon as the news of Japan’s surrender was announced on August 14, celebrations erupted across the United States. The United Kingdom announced that its official V-J Day would be the next day, August 15, 1945, and Americans exuberantly joined in that day’s merriment, too.

Victory over Japan Day (V-J Day) would officially be celebrated in the United States on the day formal surrender documents were signed aboard the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay: September 2, 1945.

From the Collection to the Classroom: Teaching History with The National WWII Museum: The War in the Pacific

In New York City’s Times Square, sailors climbed lampposts to unfurl American flags as ticker tape rained down upon the throngs gathered to celebrate the war’s end. In thousands of small towns like North Platte, Nebraska, similar scenes included fireworks, confetti, and impromptu parades down Main Street. In San Francisco, parades celebrated that troops would soon return home through that city.

In Honolulu, marching bands, parades, ticker tape, and blowing papers filled the streets. In backyard celebrations, shirtless veterans drank celebratory toasts in the warm sunlight. Veterans and their girlfriends also crowded into and on top of trucks and cars (some even riding on fenders), waved flags, and excitedly drove through the city, relishing the moment Americans had hoped for since the attack on Pearl Harbor.

Victory over Japan Day (V-J Day) would officially be celebrated in the United States on the day formal surrender documents were signed aboard the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay: September 2, 1945.

But as welcome as victory over Japan was, the day was bittersweet in light of the war’s destructiveness. More than 400,000 Americans—and an estimated 65 million people worldwide—had died in the conflict. As historian Donald L. Miller, PhD, wrote in his book The Story of World War II, “It was too much death to contemplate, too much savagery and suffering and in August 1945 no one was counting. For those who had seen the face of battle and been in the camps and under the bombs—and had lived—there was a sense of immense relief.” The war was over.


The capture of Henry Rinnan, notorious Norwegian Gestapo agent, mass murderer, torturer and war criminal. Verdallsfjellen, near the Norwegian border to Sweden. May 14, 1945. [960x540]

Article (Norwegian) about the capture. Apparently the soldiers hunting him down used amphetamine to handle the stress and exhaustion of the chase: http://www.dagbladet.no/2010/05/14/nyheter/innenriks/henry_rinnan/11723172/

Amphetamine use was pretty common place in WWII. The Germans gave it to tankcrews and pilots and the Americans gave it to pilots (and still do in the form of go-pills)

Who captured him, swedes or norwegians?

Ahhh Henry Oliver - member of my extended family,, not something we are proud of for sure!

His famous "Bande kloster" (Gang monastery directly translated) was not far from where I was born and raised.

I hadn't known about this guy. What a piece of shit.

Serious question here - why is an Allied troop pointing an MP40 at a Gestapo?

I really can't make out in the picture myself. But it wouldn't surprise me if it is. After the Germans in Norway complied with the capitulation orders on May 7th a new Norwegian administration of the country was put in place over night. If it is an MP40, then I would speculate that it was "liberated" from the capitulating German forces at some point.

The allied air-dropped weapons into Norwegian territory, and some weapons were secretly manufactured here during the war, but still, after the liberation the resistance coming out of hiding lacked guns. So they took what they could find.

At first glance I too thought it was an MP40 but if you look closely there are some major differences between that gun and an actual MP40.

The gun in this picture has a barrel which is far too wide/large to be an MP40, the clip looks larger than the standard MP40 clip, and the body of the gun doesn't look like an MP40.

Link to a google image search for "mp40":

EDIT did a google search for Norwegian sub machine guns of ww2 and found one that looks a lot more similar to gun in picture than an MP40:


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