Begravelse Stela

Begravelse Stela


Gamle middelhavs begravelseskunst

Dette indlæg er en del af en række billedindlæg, Ancient History et cetera vil poste hver måned. I dag handler det om gammel begravelseskunst!

Alle gamle kulturer havde varierende og omfattende overbevisning om liv og død. De havde også udførlige begravelsesritualer udført ved døden. Disse ritualer sikrede sikker rejse til efterlivet, så de døde huskes for evigt.

Ved det sjette århundrede CE var gamle græske begreber om efterlivet og ceremonier forbundet med begravelse veletablerede. De troede, at da en døde gik de til Hades og hans kone, Persephone. Græske begravelsesritualer blev normalt udført af familiens kvinder og involverede en protese (lægning ud af kroppen) og ekphora (begravelsesoptog). De mest almindelige former for græsk begravelseskunst er reliefskulptur, statuer og høj stelai kronet med hovedstæder og finials.

På samme måde udførte romerne et begravelsesoptog for deres døde, som ville ende med en columbarium. Disse columbarium, afhængigt af personens station i livet, kunne være ganske detaljeret. Roman Sarcophagi har også en tendens til at være ganske smuk og visuelt fortælle os romerske værdier. (Hvorimod epitafier giver litterær indsigt i romerske værdier.) Romersk begravelseskunst omfatter også dødsmasker, gravsten og skulpturelle relieffer.

I det antikke Grækenland og Rom blev etruskerne identificeret som deres egen kultur. Etruskernes begravelsespraksis resulterede i mange begravelsesartikler, såsom: skulptur, sarkofager, dekorative cinerary eller begravede urner og grave.

De forskellige egyptiske begravelsesritualer er jeg sikker på, at de fleste har hørt om! I stedet for at gå i detaljer om egyptisk tro, tror jeg, at alle kan være enige om, at deres praksis resulterede i en masse ting, der kunne klassificeres som begravelseskunst.


Ukendt egyptisk Begravelse Stela fra Senebef

Proveniens [Mohareb Todrous, Luxor, Egypten] købt af Miss Annette Finnigan (1873–1940), Houston, i 1931 givet til MFAH, 1931.
Udstillingshistorie udlånt til "Texas Women: A Celebration of History 1730–1980", arrangeret af Texas Foundation for Women's Resources
rejser til: University of Texas, Institute of Texas Cultures i San Antonio, 9. maj - september 1981
Hall of State, Dallas, 24. september 1981-10. Januar 1982
LBJ Library, University of Texas i Austin, februar – sommer 1982
Panhandle Plains Historical Museum, Canyon, TX, gennem august 1982
University of Texas i El Paso, august – november 1982
Houston Museum of Natural Science, 23. november 1982–15. Januar 1983 (LN: 81,15)

Udlånt til "The Egyptian Mummy: Unwrapping the Mystery" på Houston Museum of Natural Science, 23. marts – sep. 17, 1989 (LN: 89,14).

Udlånt til "Mummies: The Egyptian Art of Death", på San Antonio Museum of Art, 6. august 1993 til 1. oktober 1995, og fortsat at se i San Antonio indtil 21. juli 1996 (LN: 93,24).
Inskriptioner, underskrifter og mærker

Katalogisering af data kan ændre sig med yderligere forskning.

Hvis du har spørgsmål om dette kunstværk eller MFAH Online Collection, bedes du kontakte os.


En gruppe begravelsesstelaer

. . . “Dit arbejde, berørt af det fælles behov,
Forhåbentlig bedømt på denne grav,
Med det sikre segl af håb på ansigtet
Hint om tro på en sublimer trosbekendelse,
Proklamerer et liv med overbevisende nåde,
En død, hvis sidste vej ikke er dyster! ”

Harvey M. Watts.

Disse linjer til en etruskisk statuar får et ønske om, at noget lignende kunne mindes arbejdet med de stenskærere i det gamle Athen, hvis hænder blev ført til et så suverænt design ” i marmorstelae fra Ceramicus. Den generelle skønhed ved disse kugler og i alle græske begravelsesstele er den mere bemærkelsesværdige i betragtning af det faktum, at stenskærerne må have været håndværkere, der arbejder med stykker snarere end at udfylde private ordrer, ligesom de begravede billedhuggere i Egypten.

Disse gamle gravsten i enhver periode har en fælles egenskab - de dvæler aldrig ved dødens rædsler, men understreger altid livet og giver ideen om, at selv om livet er forbi, er der i det mindste en afspejling af den forsvundne eksistens. Som en dygtig fransk kritiker har udtrykt det, er #Døden altid til stede, men som om den respekterede skønheden i den menneskelige form, rører den marmorbillederne med en let finger, for kun at imponere på dem en karakter af rolig sød tyngdekraft og af mild, melankolisk ro. ”

Den samme ånd ånder fra epitafierne i den græske antologi:

Hvorfor skrumpe fra døden, forælder til hvile,
Kuren mod sygdom og alle menneskelige problemer?
Som gennem menneskestammerne fremskynder han sin vej,
En gang, men en gang, vil han besøge:
Mens blege sygdomme, varsler om smerte,
Tæt på hinanden, - et endeløst tog.

Begravelsesstelen var en flad firkantet plade med skulpturel dekoration på det ene ansigt. Det blev sat i jorden på samme måde som gravstenene over moderne grave. Så vidt det kan bestemmes, stammer det fra Grækenland, for Achaeanerne ved Mykene satte sig over deres døde flade plader dekoreret i lav relief med scener, der viser høvdinge, der jagter eller kæmper som i livet. Homer taler om en søjle, der blev oprettet i Lycia, hvor en mand ’s “kindred begraver ham med en barrow og en στἠλη, for sådan skyldes de døde. ” Denne søjle skal være relateret til den klassiske oprindelige form stele, som ville have været en uslået sten, i senere generationer omhyggeligt formet og dekoreret. Den oprindelige idé var tilsyneladende, at da graven er de dødes bolig, så er stelen sjælens hus, en idé parallel med Ægeanernes, at søjlen er guddommens bolig. Denne grundlæggende idé om muligheden for, at sjælen spøger det monument, der er oprettet over dens krop, udslettes ikke i klassisk tid, selv af den populære tro på Hades, og det er det logiske grundlag for heroiseringen af ​​de døde, der er så udbredt på hellenistiske gravsten. Hvor som helst selve stelen stammer fra, ser det ud til, at skikken med at indskrive sådan en sten er opstået på Kykladernes øer, hvor vi meget tidligt i den græske kunsthistorie finder sten med navnet på de døde hugget på, og nogle gange også navnet på den pårørende, der oprettede mindesmærket.

Fragment af en gravstele. IV århundrede B. C. FIG. 57.
Museums objektnummer: MS4019
Billednummer: 3323

Stelen i det klassiske Grækenland er et omhyggeligt bearbejdet monument, der er kronet med en dekorativ enhed, såsom en palet, og i tidens løb omgivet af arkitektoniske lister eller indrammet mellem søjler, der understøtter en arkitrave, og giver et skinn af en helligdom eller en heron. På pladens område huggede billedhuggeren i varierende grad af lettelse billedet af de døde i en sædvanlig stilling eller yndlingsbeskæftigelse eller igen i en familiegruppe. Målet var at præsentere noget generelt og menneskeligt frem for specifikt og individuelt. Således er det, at vi på sådanne monumenter aldrig ser en individuel hændelse, men altid en situation i overensstemmelse med en persons generelle kvaliteter.

Stelen er den mest almindelige form for gravmonument blandt grækerne, utvivlsomt fordi dens udformning kunne være lige så enkel eller så udførlig som de efterladtes midler kunne diktere. I den arkaiske periode med græsk kunst var stenene meget slanke og var dekoreret med den afdødes eneste skikkelse, da han optrådte i livet, med måske en lille sekundær figur af en yndlings slave eller et kæledyr eller lignende. I det femte århundrede f.Kr. den sekundære figur kommer til at være en meget effektiv folie for hovedfiguren familiegrupper vises, og i løbet af det fjerde århundrede er disse det regelmæssige motiv for udsmykningen af ​​stjerne. Disse grupper viser de nærmeste og kært samlet om afdøde i behersket sorg. Ved de hurtige og de dødes hænder, ved den afdødes rolige værdighed, “ berørt af dødens skygge, som kun hviler på de levende i baggrunden ” afslører disse grupper en bevidst ignorering af den fysiske adskillelse . I det fjerde århundrede ser disse begravelsesmonumenter deres højeste grad af udvikling, for i dette århundrede udviser gravskulpturen en glad kombination af universel skønhed med realistisk eller rettere personlig gengivelse af detaljer og træk. Mod slutningen af ​​århundredet sluttede stjernerne pludseligt på grund af de overdådige love i Demetrios i Phaleron i 315 f.Kr.

En gravstele, der repræsenterer en banketscene. FIG. 58. Kort: 3315-8.
Museums objektnummer: MS4023
Billednummer: 3316

Der er for nylig blevet udstillet igen på udstillingen i Middelhavsområdet to gamle begravelsesmarmor, gaver af lang levetid. Den ene, præsenteret af fru Lucy Wharton Drexel, er et fragment af pentelisk marmor fra toppen af ​​en fjerde århundredes stele, den anden, fru John Harrisons gave, er en lille grovkornet sten i den hellenistiske tidsalder. Der havde allerede været udstillet en lemlæstet stele, der hidtil ikke var offentliggjort, fru Drexels gave og en stor stele, der for nylig blev erhvervet, udgivet af Dr. Luce i MUSEUM JOURNAL VIII, 1917, nr. 1, s. 10 ff. Selvom ingen af ​​de tre upublicerede kugler er af iboende skønhed, forekommer det passende at nævne dem kort som eksemplarer af en skulpturklasse, der har en helt særlig interesse i, at det på én gang er det enkleste og mest almindelige mindesmærke for de døde i Det gamle Grækenland.

En begravelsesstele. FIG. 59.
Museums objektnummer: MS4020
Billednummer: 3314

Figur 57, et fragment, der måler i sine største dimensioner 28 tommer med 17, viser toppen af ​​en familiegruppe, der ville være omkring 42 tommer i højden, hvis den var intakt. Indstillingen er en slags helte, med en trekantet gavl, der er overgået på toppen af ​​en palet, meget beskadiget og ornamenteret i enderne med acroteria, hvoraf den ene er helt væk, og den anden er i dårlig stand. Denne gavl blev understøttet på hver side af flade pilastre, hvis øverste del af den ene til højre er bevaret. I midten af ​​feltet i lav relief er hovedet på en kvinde fuld front. Hendes hår, skilt i midten og vinket på begge sider, er dækket af et slør, hvis ender hænger ned på hver side af hendes hals. Til venstre for hende er hovedet på en skægget mand i høj lettelse, vendt mod venstre og stirrede forbi kvinden til den del af stelen, der nu er tabt. Tilsyneladende ser han på den afdødes siddende skikkelse. På arkitraven er skåret to feminine navne, [ΓΛ] Τ [Κ] ΕΡΑ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΗ Glycera og Philippa. Det første navn er tilsyneladende navnet på den afdøde til hvis ære graven blev oprettet, måske datter til manden og kvinden repræsenteret i de fragmentariske hoveder. Det andet navn ville være navnet på en tidligere afdød kvindelig slægtning, til hvem der ikke blev opsat sten på tidspunktet for begravelsen, og som nu deler Glycera -stelen.

Figur 58 er en lille sten på 27,5 x 18,5. Det siges at være erhvervet i Athen. Indrammet af søjler, der understøtter en bue, er repræsenteret en banketscene, et motiv, der bliver meget almindeligt efter det fjerde århundrede f.Kr., og er især populært blandt romerne. I en eller anden form er motivet meget gammelt. Det forekommer i arkaisk græsk kunst som en slags symbolsk madoffer til de døde. Hvor langt og hvor lang tid stenskæreren er bevidst om denne betydning af motivet, er svært at sige. Bestemt i det sene arbejde synes der at være mere af erindringen end af votiv om det.

I denne gengivelse af motivet læner en skægløs mand sig ned på en sofa, venstre albue hviler på en dobbelt pude og højre arm forlænget, bøjet ved albuen, hånden holder en patera løftet for hældning af en libation. Posen er meget behagelig - det højre knæ bøjede og hævede en smule, og det venstre knæ bøjede og benet fladt på sofaen. Manden er klædt i en kortærmet chiton, over hvilken er pakket en himation, der dækker hans ben og venstre arm. Ved foden af ​​sofaen på en firbenet skammel sidder en kvinde tæt draperet i en lang chiton og en himation, der dækker hendes hår. Hun er sandsynligvis den afdødes kone. Hendes højre hånd ligger i ro i hendes skød, hendes venstre er hævet og holder hendes slør tæt på hendes kind. Hendes fødder hviler på en lav fodskammel. Før sofaen står et trebenet bord spredt med mad. Yderst til højre og venstre er to diminutive ledsagere, den ene til højre med beklædningsgenstand båret højt over knæene, den til venstre iført en dorisk chiton med overfoldning og bærende en høj krukke.

På arkitraven i omhyggeligt afskårne almindelige bogstaver læser man

MENEMAXE ΔΙΦΙΛΟΥ
XPHΣTE XAIPE

“ Værdig Menemachos søn af Diplilos, farvel. ” Alfa er skåret med en brudt stang.

En anden stjerne, Fig. 59, har i nogen tid været udstillet i vestrummet i Middelhavssektionen, men der er ikke offentliggjort nogen redegørelse for den. Det er et fragment af en relief, hvorfra toppen er tabt. Stelen måler i øjeblikket 23 x 40 tommer og er dekoreret med en gruppe på tre figurer, hvoraf kun den ene er komplet. Det var naturligvis tænkt som et mindesmærke for kvinden repræsenteret af den fremtrædende siddende skikkelse. Hun er klædt i en jonisk chiton og en himation, og sidder behageligt i en højrygget stol med fødderne krydset og hviler på en lav fodskammel. Hun ser ud til at have sandaler på. Hendes venstre arm er delvist skjult under hendes himation, og hendes højre hånd er forlænget og klemmer hånden på en mand, der står overfor hende. Han er draperet i en himation, der dækker hans ben, passerer omkring taljen og hænger over venstre skulder og efterlader brystet og højre arm nøgne. Hans venstre hånd holder sin kappe nær skulderen. Hovedet på denne figur er væk, sådan er det også med kvinden, hvis figur i lavt relief er placeret i baggrunden mellem mand og kone, for sådan kan de to fremtrædende siddende figurer antages at være. Den tredje figur kan være en datters. Da arkitraven, stedet hvor indskrifterne blev udskåret, mangler, har vi ingen midler til at kende navnene på nogen af ​​personerne.

Citer denne artikel

Rambo, Eleanor F .. "En gruppe begravelsesstelae." Museumsbladet X, nej. 3 (september 1919): 149-155. Adgang til 16. juni 2021. https://www.penn.museum/sites/journal/723/

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Fil: Detalje om begravelsesstela for Amenemhat. Navnet på Gud Amun blev slettet af Akhenatons agenter. Kalksten, malet. Fra Egypten, tidligt 18. århundrede. The Burrell Collection, Glasgow.jpg

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Central Stele Park

The Great Stele, Stele of Aksum og Ezana's Stele har fået stor opmærksomhed på grund af deres højde, vægt, udskæringer og betydelige historiske værdi. De var placeret på den let skrånende grund af Central Stele Park og skulle beundres fra nedadgående del af det dengang relativt unge centrum af Aksum. Dette tvang indbyggerne og besøgende til bogstaveligt talt at se op til monumenterne.

Den Store Stele

The Great Stele eller Stela One måler 33 m i længden og omkring 520 tons i vægt. Monumentet er sandsynligvis den største enkeltmonolit, som mennesker nogensinde har forsøgt at opføre. Great Stele faldt sandsynligvis ned, mens der blev gjort forsøg på at opføre den. Da den faldt, ramte den den megalitiske struktur kendt som Nefas Mawcha, et rektangulært kammer, begravet i sin hensigt. Stelaen hviler overvejende på plader, der formodentlig er skubbet under monolitten til konserveringsformål, efter at den var tumlet.

I modsætning til alle andre stelae blev Great Stele hugget på alle fire sider. Det repræsenterer en tretten etagers bygning med vinduer og falske døre ved foden, både for og bag-hvilket antyder troen på et slags efterliv. Fordybningerne på hver side af stelen er udførligt underbøjet. Dette koncept får det stærke Aksum -sollys til at øge den tilsyneladende lettelse af de udskårne overflader. Udgravninger har afsløret, at større grave overlevede på hver side af Stela One.

The Great Stele hviler delvist på Nefas Mawcha (til venstre).

Aksums Stele

Stele of Aksum eller Stela Two, er cirka 24 m høj og vejer 200 tons. I overensstemmelse med Italiens fascistiske ideal om at genetablere Romerriget, både fysisk og kulturelt, besatte italienske tropper Etiopien i 1930'erne. Italienerne tog ikke kun ejerskab over den næststørste stele i Aksum, de beslaglagde også en statue af Judas løve (et vigtigt etiopisk symbol), en række kongelige og kirkelige kroner, statsarkiverne og malerier.

Ligesom den Store Stele lå Stele i Aksum brudt i flere stykker, da italienerne overførte Stele i Aksum til Massawa, derefter Napoli, og endelig, Rom i 1937. Stelen blev genopført på Piazza di Porta Capena foran det (tidligere) italienske koloniministerium, tæt på Cirkus Maximus. Stelaen blev et symbol på Italiens ønske om at kolonisere Etiopien og tegnede en direkte parallel mellem Romerriget og den moderne italienske stat.

I 1947 underskrev den italienske regering en fredsaftale om at returnere alle skatte til Etiopien. Det var først i 2005, at stela blev demonteret i Rom og sendt med fly i tre stykker til Aksum. Monolitens genopførelse i 2008 markerede en vigtig national begivenhed: det gamle kunstværk var vendt tilbage til sit oprindelige sted efter at have boet i udlandet i næsten halvfjerds år.

Kong Ezanas Stele

Stela Three blev fremstillet og placeret til ære for kong Ezana (fjerde århundrede). Det er den eneste store stela, der aldrig blev flyttet eller nogensinde faldt ned, og er formodentlig den sidste obelisk, der blev rejst i Aksum. Under Ezanas regeringstid blev kristendommen introduceret for den aksumitiske befolkning. Efterhånden som elitens religiøse præference skiftede mod kristendommen, blev der indført nye praksisser, der førte til enden på brugen af ​​stelaer som begravelsesmarkører.

Det er klart, at gravminde ikke står helt lodret. Dens hældningsposition overdrives imidlertid af hældningen på jorden, som stelaen står på, og af forskydningen af ​​den forreste bundplade. Efter bekymringerne ved stelaens vippeposition blev den strukturelt konsolideret i 2008. Billederne til højre viser detaljeret, hvordan stelen forhindres i muligvis at falde ned.


Hovednøgleord i artiklen herunder: funktionel, stela, amenysoneb, begravelse, element, midten, egypten, præst, rige, gammel, magisk, minde.

Nøgleemner
Denne begravelsesstela, der mindes om Amenysoneb, en præst fra Mellemriget i det gamle Egypten, er en funktionel, men magisk genstand. [1] Byen Abydos, på den vestlige bred af Nilen i det centrale Egypten, var et helligt sted for de gamle egyptere under Mellemriget, som varede fra midten af ​​enogtyve til midten af ​​det syttende århundrede fvt. [2] Ikhernofret Stela (Berlin Museum ref. 1204) er en vigtig gammel egyptisk stela dateret til Mellemriget og er kendt for sin tilslørede beskrivelse af, hvordan mysterierne om guddommen Osiris blev udført i Abydos. [3]

Abydos var et virkelig vigtigt område i Mellemriget (omkring 2055-1650 f.Kr.), da det blev anset af egypterne for at være begravelsesstedet for guden Osiris, herskeren i efterlivet. [1] I store dele af egyptisk historie, herunder Mellemriget, blev obelisker rejst i par brugt til at markere indgange til templer. [4] I løbet af Mellemriget fik egyptere uden for samfundets eliteniveauer adgang til denne begravelseslitteratur og begyndte at indarbejde den i deres egne begravelser. [4]

Mellemriget (ca. 2000-1650 f.Kr.) var præget af genforeningen af ​​Egypten efter en periode med svag faraonisk magt og borgerkrig kaldet First Intermediate. [4] Mellemriget: Egypten i det tolvte og trettende dynasti, mellem 2055 f.Kr. og 1650 f.Kr. [4]

Starter fra Torino stela Suppl. 1266, A. diskuterer de kendte eksempler på boustrophedon hieroglyphic skrift fra den første mellemperiode og indtil det sene mellemrige. [5] I løbet af Mellemriget indeholdt den rektangulære del af en stela normalt flere vandrette linjer med inskription, over skildringen af ​​stelaens ejer og lejlighedsvis nogle af hans slægtninge. [6]


Ved at føre kampagne mod nord og mod syd handlede Kamose sit implicitte krav på det område, der blev styret af Egypten i Mellemriget. [7] Blokstatuer var meget populære i det gamle Egypten fra Mellemriget og frem. [8]

Egyptisk Mellemrig, sent dynasti 12 - tidligt dynasti 1991-1640 f.Kr. [9]

De såkaldte klassiske stelaer i Mellemriget havde deres oprindelse i de stenplader, der blev sat ind i murstenene på de provinsielle kirkegårde i det sene gamle rige og den første mellemperiode. [6] I Mellemriget blev stelae indskrevet med forskellige slags tekster, den mest almindelige var offerformlen, en bøn, hvorigennem ejeren af ​​en stelae udtrykte ønske om at deltage i kongens tilbud, der blev doneret til guderne. [6] Noter, bemærkninger og forslag vedrørende dateringen af ​​Mellemrigets stelaer, med særlig fokus på tilbudsformlen og andre sætninger eller skrifter. [5] Beskrivelse af to mellemstatlige stelae genopdaget i Turin-museets opbevaringsrum: nr. [5] A. har indsamlet personnavnene fra stelae og andre dokumenter, der stammer fra Mellemriget, men kun fra daterede eller helt sikkert daterbare. [5] Senusret III (også skrevet som Senwosret III eller Sesostris III) regerede fra 1878-1839 fvt og var den femte monark i det tolvte dynasti i Mellemriget. [4] Opførelsen af ​​pyramider faldt mod slutningen af ​​det tolvte dynasti, da ustabilitet førte til tilbagegangen i Mellemriget. [4] Kongelig begravelsespraksis i Mellemriget forblev stort set den samme som i Det Gamle Rige, hvor konger fortsatte med at bygge pyramider til deres begravelser. [4] I modsætning til det gamle kongerige var kongepyramiderne i Mellemriget imidlertid ikke helt så velkonstruerede, og så få af dem forbliver som pyramidestrukturer i dag. [4] I modsætning til det gamle rige blev genstande til daglig brug ikke ofte inkluderet i gravene, men de dukkede op igen mod slutningen af ​​Mellemriget. [4] Sammenlign og modsæt mellemgravene og begravelsesartiklerne i Mellemriget med dem i Det Gamle Rige. [4] I modsætning til elitære holdninger fra det gamle rige til guderne oplevede Mellemriget en stigning i udtryk for personlig fromhed og det, der kunne kaldes en demokratisering af efterlivet. [4] Mentuhotep II var den første farao i Mellemriget og genoprettede stabiliteten efter en periode med faraonsvaghed og borgerkrig. [4] De falder alle inden for rækkevidden af ​​Mellemriget og den tidlige første mellemperiode. [10] Store grave i form af pyramider blev fortsat bygget i hele Mellemriget sammen med landsbyer, byer og forter. [4] Sort pyramide af Amenemhat III: Mellemrigets pyramider består af muddersten og ler indkapslet i kalksten. [4] Innovationer i Mellemriget omfattede højtideligheden i portrætter af Senusret III og blokstatuer. [4] En anden vigtig nyskabelse inden for skulptur i Mellemriget var blokstatuen, der bestod af en mand der satte sig på huk med knæene trukket op til brystet. [4] En anden vigtig nyskabelse inden for skulptur, der fandt sted i løbet af Mellemriget, var blokstatuen, som fortsat ville være populær til den ptolemaiske alder næsten 2000 år senere. [4]

Han levede under regeringstiden for en lidt kendt farao fra det 13. dynasti, Userkare Khendjer, der regerede mod slutningen af ​​Mellemriget. [1] Brugt fra Mellemriget til slutningen af ​​den ptolemaiske periode næsten 2000 år senere var de fleste shabtier af en lille størrelse, der ofte dækkede gulvet omkring en sarkofag. [4] Karnak -tempelkomplekset er et eksempel på fin arkitektur, der blev påbegyndt i løbet af Mellemriget og fortsatte gennem den ptolemaiske periode. [4]

Mens stelae, der repræsenterede individuelle embedsmænd, nogle gange med lange indskrifter, var almindelige tidligere i Mellemriget, oplevede slutningen af ​​dynasti 12 en stigning i populariteten af ​​stelae, der skildrer større grupper af slægtninge og kolleger. [9] The Book of the Dead of Neferrenpet, lavet af papyrus, indeholder trylleformularer, der samlet er kendt under det moderne navn Book of the Dead og er afledt af de tidligere Middle Kingdom Coffin Texts og Old Kingdom Pyramid Texts. [8] Denne fatalisme, der understreger, at guden kan være lunefuld, og at hans ønsker ikke kan kendes, er også typisk for sent New Kingdom Instruction Texts, der viser en markant ændring fra deres mellemrige forløbere ved at bevæge sig mod en passivitet og stilhed, der passer til en billigere alder. [7]

Flere, der tilskrives forfattere fra det gamle rige, eller som beskriver begivenheder i den første mellemperiode, men er sammensat i mellem egyptisk, stammer sandsynligvis også fra omkring denne tid. [7] "Kahun Medical Papyrus" eller "Gynecological Papyrus" (pKahun (med.)/London UC 32057) (12/10/12) dato: dyn. 12 - Fotografier (s/h) og hieroglyfisk tekst i: Francis LLewellyn Griffith, The Petrie Papyri: Hieratic Papyri fra Kahun og Gurob (hovedsageligt i Mellemriget). [11] V-VI-pdf-fil: URL-Beskrivelse og engelsk oversættelse af Francis LLewellyn Griffith, The Petrie Papyri: Hieratic Papyri fra Kahun og Gurob (hovedsageligt i Mellemriget). [11] Regering af Amenemhat II eller kort senere, 12. dynasti, Mellemrig. [12] Det regionale centrum for Osiris-kulten ved Abydos, der har produceret den største mængde af monumenter i Mellemriget, mistede betydning, men steder som Theben, Idfū og Al-Kawm al-Aḥmar har givet betydelige, hvis nogle gange grove fungerede, forbliver. [7]

Titlen dækker specifikt British Museum stelae fra Middle Kingdom og Second Intermediate Period, den største samling af Middle Kingdom stelae uden for Egypten. [13] Mellemrigets monumenter i Egypten er ikke så godt bevaret som det gamle riges. [14] Met har en udgravning i Egypten på et sted i Mellemriget syd for Kairo. [14] Det gamle Egypten transformeret: Mellemriget fremviser frem til den 24. januar et omfattende billede af kunst og kultur i Mellemriget-uden tvivl det mindst kendte af Egyptens tre kongeriger, og alligevel et der så skabelsen af ​​magtfulde , overbevisende værker gengivet med stor subtilitet og følsomhed. [14] Forfatteren Afdøde dr. Detlef Franke var underviser ved universitetet i Heidelberg og ekspert i det egyptiske mellemrige. særlig interesse i Mellemriget. [13] Med tak til The Metropolitan Museum of Art, her er et interview mellem Rachel High, forlags- og marketingassistent i redaktionsafdelingen på museet og Adela Oppenheim, kurator i afdelingen for egyptisk kunst på museet og medforfatter med Dorothea Arnold, Dieter Arnold og Kei Yamamoto i den fantastiske nye bog, Ancient Egypt Transformed: The Middle Kingdom. [14]

Adela Oppenheim: Da jeg kom til Met's Department of Egyptian Art, begyndte jeg at arbejde med kurator Emerita Dorothea Arnold og kurator Dieter Arnold, som er to af de store lærde i perioden mellem riget. [14]

Mere specifikt indeholder det papirer om 'Principper for dekoration på Mellemrigets stelae' 'Mitreindskrifterne på kisterne i Mellemriget' 'Bemærkninger om Heqets tempel og et sarkastisk brev fra el-Lahun' 'Nogle bemærkninger om udviklingen af rishi kister '' En ufærdig sidst i Mellemrigets stela fra Abydos '. [15] Usædvanlig Middle Kingdom Funerary Stela of a Man at Alexandria National Museum no. 223. [16] Publikation af en Mellemrigsstela, udstilles i Alexandria National Museum (Inv. [16]

At forstå kunst i Mellemriget kræver lidt tålmodighed, men det er nogle af de smukkeste kunstværker, der er produceret i det gamle Egypten, så jeg synes, at den ekstra indsats er meget godt belønnet. [14]

Stockfoto - Gamle objekt, Egypten, Stela of Kay, Mellemriget 2055-1650 f.Kr. [17] Senwosret III som sfinx, en del af udstillingen "Ancient Egypt Transformed: The Middle Kingdom" på Metropolitan Museum of Art. [18] "Ancient Egypt Transformed: The Middle Kingdom" åbner mandag og fortsætter til og med den 24. januar på Metropolitan Museum of Art 212-535-7710 metmuseum.org. [18] Det vender tilbage til emnet i "Ancient Egypt Transformed: The Middle Kingdom", en udstilling især lav på King Tut bling og højt på kompleks skønhed. [18]


Abydos fik øget kongelig opmærksomhed i Mellemriget, begyndende i regeringstiden for Nebhepetre Montuhotep II. Det var stedet for en grav bygget af Senwosret III i det 12. dynasti, og den altafgørende Osiris-festival definerede stedet. [19] Mellemriget, dynasti 12, regeringstid i Amenemhat III (ca. 1859-1813 f.Kr.). [14] Mellemriget, dynasti 12, regeringstid i Senwosret II (ca. 1887-1878 f.Kr.). [14]

Statuer af den afdøde findes ligesom stelae i mere forskellige sammenhænge fra Mellemriget, end det var tilfældet i Det Gamle Rige. [19] En samling af ni tematiske essays om kulturen i Mellemriget og Anden Mellemperiode med fokus på dødsstuer, inskriptioner, begravelser og kisteudsmykning. [15] Efterfølgende herskere fra det nye rige demonterede Mellemrigets templer og genbrugte blokkene i New Kingdom -fonde. [14]

Må det y^h -tegn, der findes her, allerede repræsentere ordet iff^i denne mellemrige tekst, et af de udtryk, der anvendes på de døde? 20 egyptiske Stelae af brød og øl, okser og gæs og alt godt for Senhotep, datter af Bau. "31672. [20] Millard, A., Kvindernes stilling i familien og i samfundet i det gamle Egypten: med særlig henvisning til Mellemriget. 3 bind. [21] Stregtegningen af ​​en rund-toppet stela (nummer 22 i slutningen af ​​Mellemriget) i sort blæk er yderst nyttig, idet indskriften er falmet siden Petrie's originale udgivelse .6 Som forfatteren har bemærket, kan stregtegninger være mere tidskrævende, men de er i stand til at udforme skilte og detaljer, som ellers ikke kan ses på fotos. [21] Kalksten Stela fra Inyotef, født af Tjefi, Post- genforeningsstil for dynastiet 11.5, Mellemriget, Deir el-Bahri. [22]

Selvom Egypten var underlagt politisk dekadence efter sammenbruddet af Det Nye Rige, fortsatte høje kunstneriske standarder, som det er tydeligt i stela treogfirs, en smuk rund toppet stela, der stammer fra den tredje mellemperiode til den ptolemaiske æra. [21]

Abstrakt: Præsentation af et nyt projekt til udgivelse af 176 Middle Kingdom og Second Intermediate Period-stelaer af ikke-kongelig oprindelse på British Museum. [23] Efterkommere af både de tidligere former, de rundformede stelaer fra den protodynastiske periode og de rektangulære "falske døre" i Det Gamle Rige, blev brugt i Mellemriget. [20] By the Middle Kingdom, with the "democratization" of the Netherworld, more levels of society erected stelae, such as at Abydos, where the deceased hoped to partake in the mysteries of Osiris for eternity. [21] During the Middle Kingdom the dead, wherever buried, were frequently given memorial tablets at Abydos, where the god Osiris himself was thought to be interred, that they might thereby enjoy a closer intimacy with that great ruler of the dead. [20]

Offering bearer, Tomb of Meketre, Thebes (TT 280), Dynasty 11.5, Middle Kingdom, ca. 1990 BC. [22] Great offering scene, interior of outer coffin, Coffin of Djehuty-nakht, Beni Hasan, Dynasty 11.5, Middle Kingdom, paint on wood. [22] Painted sandstone seated statue of King Mentuhotep Nebhepetre, Mortuary Temple of Mentuhotep Nebhepetre, Deir el-Bahri, Dynasty 11.5, Middle Kingdom. [22] Standing figure of Mentuhotep II, Mortuary Temple of Mentuhotep Nebhepetre, Deir el-Bahri, Dynasty 11.5, Middle Kingdom. [22] Plan of latest phase of Funerary temple and complex of Mentuhotep Nebhepetre, Dynasty 11-11.5, Middle Kingdom, Deir el-Bahri. [22] Number twelve dates to Dynasty Ten, while thirteen to thirty-two are from the Middle Kingdom. [21] A relief of an elite woman painted on limestone, from about 1887-1840 BC. Credit The Trustees of the British Museum, London Oddly, given its central place in Egypt’s past, the Middle Kingdom (circa 2030 to 1650 B.C.) has never had a comprehensive museum showcase till now. [18]

Akhenaten's newly founded capital at modern Amarna, in Middle Egypt, was marked by fifteen rock-cut boundary stelae on which the king explained why he had chosen that site for his new political and religious center. [6] The earliest stelae were erected in Egypt during the 1st dynasty to mark the tombs of the kings and their courtiers in the cemetery of Abydos in Upper Egypt. [6] From the 1st dynasty (when the earliest stelae were used in Egypt) onward until Roman times, a considerable change in the shapes of stelae, their decoration and their types of inscriptions took place. [6] Map of the netherworld from the coffin of Gua, from Deir el-Bersha, Egypt (Twelfth Dynasty, 1985-1795 BCE) : The map inscribed in this coffin comprises part of the Coffin Texts intended to help the deceased navigate through the Duat. [4] After toppling the last rulers of the Tenth Dynasty, Mentuhotep II began consolidating his power over all Egypt, completing the process circa 2000 BCE. His subjects considered him to be divine or semi-divine, as suggested in a relief depicting the pharaoh receiving offerings. [4] One example of such stelae is the Annals of Amenemhat II, an important historical document for the reign of Amenemhat II (r. 1929-1895 BCE) and also for the history of Ancient Egypt and understanding kingship in general. [4]

Much of what we know of the kingdoms and administrations of Egyptian kings are from the public and private stelae that recorded bureaucratic titles and other administrative information. [4] Senusret III is considered to be perhaps the most powerful Egyptian ruler of the dynasty and led the kingdom to an era of peace and prosperity. [4] His military campaigns gave rise to an era of peace and economic prosperity that not only reduced the power of regional rulers, but also led to a revival in craftwork, trade, and urban development in the Egyptian kingdom. [4]

Coffin Texts evolved from the previous Pyramid texts of the Old Kingdom, expanding and introducing spells that were more relatable to nobles and non-royal Egyptians. [4]

Besides the offering formula, which remained the most common prayer on stelae throughout Egyptian history, stelae also had genealogies, dedication formulas and other texts. [6] The article will present three unpublished stelae from the Egyptian Museum in Cairo (JE 45246CG 20810, JE 39069CG 20803, JE 36422CG 20800). [10]

If the typical Egyptian stela looks suspiciously like a traditional tombstone, the reason is because traditional tombstones are a modern rendition of these ancient markers. [6] In the Late Period and also in the Ptolemaic Period, a clear distinction was made once again between the lunette and the rectangular part of the stela, although some still follow the decorative scheme of the New Kingdom stelae. [6] Stelae with ears are classed as "magic" stelae, like the so-called cippus from the Late Period, a type of stela with the image of the child god Horus standing on a crocodile and holding snakes, scorpions and other dangerous animals. [6] Votive stelae where often dominated by large images of the god to whom the stela was dedicated, and they contain very little text. [6] The Kamose stela was erected to commemorate the victory of the pharaoh Kamose over the Hyksos ruler in about 1570 BC. Successful military campaigns were also mentioned on the boundary stelae that were set up by Senusret III of the 12th Dynasty, in Semna and Uronarti, lower Nubia, and by Tuthmosis I and Tuthmosis III of the 18th Dynasty, on the banks of the Euphrates River and on the Gebel Barkal in upper Nubia, respectively. [6] The first two are round-topped stelae, while the third is a rectangular stela. [10]

The false doors in the tombs of the 3rd Dynasty at Saqqara consist of a door niche as well as a rectangular slab stela, which shows the tomb owner in front of an offering table. [6] The offering formula was written in tombs, on coffins, and on a type of object we call a funerary stela. [1]

The owner of our stela, Amenysoneb (which means "The God Amun is healthy’) worked at Abydos, where he was in charge of a small rotation of priests, called a phyle. [1] Review of a very famous MK stela belonging to a "Master-sculptor" who worked in Abydos during the reign of Senwosret I, 12th dynasty. [5]

Re-examination of a small stela in the Museum of the Accademia dei Concordi in Rovigo (old nr. 12 new nr. [5]

In the rock-cut tombs of the New Kingdom, stelae were placed in the open courts to represent the owner. [6] Painted wooden stelae occurred for the first time during the New Kingdom, but hey become more frequent from the Third Intermediate Period onward. [6]

At the end of the Old Kingdom, Abydos developed into an important cult center for the god Osiris. [6] As in the Old Kingdom, stone was most often reserved for tombs and temples, while bricks were used for palaces, fortresses, everyday houses, and town walls. [4] Owing to the enlargement of the tomb superstructures during the Old Kingdom, the offering place was moved into a niche in the panel decoration that covered the facades of the tombs. [6]

In the Old Kingdom, the Pyramid Texts, which contained spells to help the dead reach the afterlife successfully, were only accessible to the elite. [4]

One of the few kings who were deified and honored with a cult during their own lifetime, he is considered to be perhaps the most powerful Egyptian ruler of the dynasty. [4] He was able to collect more than four hundred objects, part of them on the advice of Ernesto Schiaparelli, the first Director of the Egyptian Museum in Florence (1884) and from 1894 of the Turin Museum. [5] Osiris :The god of the underworld and husband of the goddess Isis in the Egyptian pantheon. [4] Hieroglyphic and pictorial carvings in brilliant colors were abundantly used to decorate Egyptian structures. [4] Ancient Egyptian architects used sun-dried bricks, fine sandstone, limestone, and granite for their building purposes, though typically reserved stone for temples and tombs. [4] Stelae inscriptions were usually written in hieroglyphs but occasionally also in Hieratic, the cursive writing of the ancient Egyptians. [6] In ancient Egypt, stelae are slabs of stone or wood, of many different shapes, usually bearing inscriptions, reliefs or paintings. [6] The stelae of Ancient Egypt served many purposes, from funerary, to marking territory, to publishing decrees. [4] Stelae have played an important role in our understanding of ancient Egypt. [6]

It was found by Professor John Garstang in 1907 at Abydos in Egypt, a site which is part way between Luxor and Cairo. [1]

While most stelae were taller than they were wide, the slab stelae took a horizontal dimension and was used by a small list of ancient Egyptian dignitaries or their wives. [4] IV, 1981-1990 -- Transcription and English translation ("based mainly on Stela S"): URL -- English translation by James Henry Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, vol. II, Chicago, 1906, sections 958-972 : URL -- English translation (based on Stela S): Lichtheim II, 48-51: URL -- English translation by William J. Murnane, Texts from the Amarna Period in Egypt, Atlanta, Georgia, 1995, pp. 81-86 -- German translation by Wolfgang Helck, Urkunden der 18. [11]

IV, 1539a-1544 - URL -- English translation in: James Henry Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, vol. II, Chicago, 1906, sections 810-815: URL Also available at URL -- Transliteration, English translation and commentary of the dream section only (lines 8-13) in: Appendix of Texts used in Szpakowska, Kasia. [11]

Exercises and Middle Egyptian Texts, Leiden, 1970, p. 46 -- Transcription and English translation by Mark-Jan Nederhof - 2 pp., pdf-file (12 KB): URL -- English translation by James Henry Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, vol. II, Chicago, 1906, sections 649-650: URL -- Hieroglyphic text (based on Urk. [11]

Amenism, Atenism and Egyptian Monotheism, New York, 1923, pp. 46-54: URL -- English translation in: Lichtheim II, 86-89 -- German translation (first and second hymn) by Jan Assmann, in: TUAT II, 844-846 -- Italian translation (partial): URL -- Online version of: Steven Blake Shubert, Double Entendre in the Stela of Suty and Hor, in: Gary N. Knoppers, Antoine Hirsch (eds.), Egypt, Israel, and the Ancient Mediterranean World. [11]

Egypt: crowns The crown of Lower Egypt (left) and the crown of Upper Egypt (right), both worn by King Sesostris III, Egypt, 19th century bce in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo. [7] Just as Asians resident in Egypt were incorporated into Egyptian society and could rise to important positions, so their gods, though represented as foreign, were worshiped according to Egyptian cult practices. [7] Not only were foreign objets d’art imported into Egypt, but Egyptian artisans imitated Aegean wares as well. [7]

The New Kingdom was a time of increased devotion to the state god Amon-Re, whose cult largely benefited as Egypt was enriched by the spoils of war. [7] Beginning in the New Kingdom, small human-shaped figurines called shabtis were placed in Egyptian tombs as a common part of the burial equipment. [8] The vernacular form of the New Kingdom, which is now known as Late Egyptian, appears fully developed in letters of the later 19th and 20th dynasties. [7]

Earlier works in Middle Egyptian were copied in schools and in good papyrus copies, and new texts were composed in Late Egyptian. [7] The first datable corpus of literary texts was composed in Middle Egyptian. [7] In the reign of Thutmose I, Egyptian conquests in the Middle East and Africa reached their greatest extent, but they may not yet have been firmly held. [7] In the early 12th dynasty the written language was regularized in its classical form of Middle Egyptian, a rather artificial idiom that was probably always somewhat removed from the vernacular. [7]

At about the time that he altered his name to conform with the new religion, the king transferred the capital to a virgin site at Amarna (Tell el-Amarna Al-ʿAmārinah) in Middle Egypt. [7] Akhenaton, Nefertiti, and their daughters King Akhenaton (left) with Queen Nefertiti and three of their daughters under the rays of the sun god Aton, Egypt, mid-14th century bce in the State Museums, Berlin. [7] In an inscription recording Tutankhamun’s actions for the gods, the Amarna period is described as one of misery and of the withdrawal of the gods from Egypt. [7]

IV, 26-29: URL -- English translation by James Henry Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, vol. II, Chicago, 1906, sections 33-37: URL -- German translation in: Kurt Sethe, Urkunden der 18. [11] VII, 47-50: URL -- English translation by: James Henry Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, vol. I, Chicago, 1906, sections 694-706: URL idem, at: URL -- German translation in: Dietrich Wildung, Sesostris und Amenemhet. [11] IV, 1713-1721 - pdf-file: URL -- Drawings: LD III, 74-75: URL -- English translation by Benedict G. Davies, Egyptian Historical Records of the Later Eighteenth Dynasty, Fascicle IV, Translated from W. Helck, Urkunden der 18. [11] IV, 2025-2032 (not yet online) -- English translation by John Bennett, The Restoration Inscription of Tut'ankhamun, JEA, vol. 25, pp. 8-15 (1939), : URL -- English translation by Benedict G. Davies, Egyptian Historical Records of the Later Eighteenth Dynasty, Fascicle VI, Translated from W. Helck, Urkunden der 18. [11]

Although Ahmose (ruled c. 1539-14 bce ) had been preceded by Kamose, who was either his father or his brother, Egyptian tradition regarded Ahmose as the founder of a new dynasty because he was the native ruler who reunified Egypt. [7] Egyptian sculpture: head of a queen Head of a queen, brown quartzite sculpture from Egypt, c. 1479-25 bce in the Brooklyn Museum, New York. [7]

Hieroglyphic texts on Egyptian stelae, drawing of a limestone stele of the official Senitef son of Rehutankh, depicting servants bringing offerings to a royal statue of pharaoh Nubkaure (Amenemhat II on the upper left, facing right). [12] Wealthier Egyptian officials often had memorial stelae erected near their tombs or memorial chapels. [8] The individual's name as well as his image had to be preserved hence, Egyptian tombs contain images of the deceased in both relief and statuary. [8] The University of Pennsylvania Museum's (UPM) Egyptian collection contains many examples of tomb statues. [8]

The city was important to the cult of Osiris, the god of the dead, and played a special role in Egyptian funerary rituals. [2] The king of the 12th dynasty with the most enduring reputation was Sesostris III (1836-18 bce ), who extended Egyptian conquests to Semna, at the south end of the Second Cataract, while also mounting at least one campaign to Palestine. [7] The Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations flourished almost simultaneously during the first civilizational phase (3000-1500 bce ). [7]

"Papyrus Anastasi I." -- Photographs (BM, several sheets): URL -- Hieroglyphic text and English translation by: Alan Henderson Gardiner, Egyptian Hieratic Texts: transcribed, translated and annotated by Alan H. Gardiner. [11] IV, 814-815: pdf-file - URL -- Hieroglyphic text in: A. de Buck, Egyptian Readingbook. [11]

The Dream Stela of Thutmosis IV date: dyn. 18, reign of Thutmosis IV -- Drawing of the stela: LD III, 68: URL -- A nice drawing of the situation at the time of the Lepsius expedition (0.1 MB): URL -- Photograph of the stela (0.4 MB): URL -- Hieroglyphic text in: Urk. [11] The Gebel Barkal Stela (Boston MFA 23.733) date: dyn. 18, reign of Thutmosis III -- Photographs (zoomable): URL -- Hieroglyphic text: Urk IV, 1227-1243 -- Hieroglyphic text (based on Urk. [11] The Stela of Suti and Hor (BM EA 826) date: dyn. 18, reign of Amenophis III -- BM fact-sheet with photos: URL -- Photograph and hieroglyphic text in: I. E. S. Edwards, British Museum. [11] The Stela of Ahmose from Abydos / Tetisheri Stela (Cairo CG 34002) date: dyn. 18, reign of Ahmose -- Photograph in: Hellmut Brunner, Hieroglyphische Chrestomathie, Wiesbaden, 1965, pl. 14 -- Photograph of upper part (79 KB): URL -- Hieroglyphic text: Urk. [11] The Restoration Stela of Tutankhamun (CG 34183) date: dyn. 18, reign of Tutankhamun -- Photographs: URL -- Hieroglyphic text: Urk. [11] The Northampton Stela of General Djehuty date: dyn. 18, reign of Hatshepsut -- Photograph in: William Compton Northampton, Marquis of, Report on some excavations in the Theban necropolis during the winter of 1898-9, London, 1908, pl. I: URL -- Hieroglyphic text in: Urk. [11] The Piankhi / Piye Stela (JE 48862) date: dyn. 25, reign of Piankhi -- Drawing of the front side: URL -- Hieroglyphic text in: Urk. [11] The Armant Stela of Thutmosis III (Cairo JE 67377) date: dyn. 18, reign of Thutmose III -- Hieroglyphic text: Urk. [11] The Great Abydos Stela of Ramesses IV for Osiris and the Gods (JE 48831) "I am a legitimate ruler I did not usurp." date: dyn. 20, reign of Ramesses IV -- Drawings in: Auguste Mariette, Abydos. [11] Three lines of text at the top of the stela request offerings for both Ameny and Yotsen, invoking Osiris, lord of Abydos, and the canine funerary god Wepwawet. [9] The content and style of the stela suggest a date late in Dynasty 12 or early in Dynasty 13. [9]

The emerging kingdom of Mitanni in northern Syria, which is first mentioned on a stela of one of Amenhotep’s soldiers and was also known by the name of Nahrin, may have threatened Egypt’s conquests to the north. [7] Under Amenhotep I the pyramidal form of royal tomb was abandoned in favour of a rock-cut tomb, and, except for Akhenaton, all subsequent New Kingdom rulers were buried in concealed tombs in the famous Valley of the Kings in western Thebes. [7] Setnakht’s son Ramses III (ruled 1187-56 bce ) was the last great king of the New Kingdom. [7] Sesostris III completed an extensive chain of fortresses in the Second Cataract at Semna he was worshiped as a god in the New Kingdom. [7]

The Book of the Dead dates to the New Kingdom or later and consists of prayers, invocations, and magical texts to ensure the survival of the deceased in the afterlife. [8] The earliest preserved important New Kingdom monuments from Memphis also date from this reign. [7]

There is scarcely any trace of local population from the later New Kingdom, when many more temples were built in Nubia by the end of the 20th dynasty, the region had almost no prosperous settled population. [7] Material relating to funerary practices, tombs, and mastabas comes from major UPM excavation sites including Dendereh (provincial Old-Middle Kingdom cemetery), Giza (cemetery of minor officials of the Old Kingdom), Saqqara (Old Kingdom pyramid cemeteries), Meydum (Old Kingdom through Roman/Coptic periods), Abydos (Predynastic through Late Period material), Dra Abu el-Naga (New Kingdom), among others. [8] He restored many monuments in the Memphite area, including pyramids and pyramid temples of the Old Kingdom, and had buildings constructed near the Sarapeum at Ṣaqqārah. [7]

In its later periods, Egyptian society, the values of which had previously tended to be centralized, secular, and political, became more locally based and more thoroughly pervaded by religion, looking to the temple as the chief institution. [7] According to Egyptian belief, the permanent inscription of a person's name was necessary for achieving immortality. [2] The word Hyksos dates to an Egyptian phrase meaning "ruler of foreign lands" and occurs in Manetho’s narrative cited in the works of the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus (1st century ce ), which depicts the new rulers as sacrilegious invaders who despoiled the land. [7]

IV, 44: URL -- English translation and discussion by Marshall Clagett, Ancient Egyptian Science. [11] IV, 155-176 (introductory speech) 176-177 (calendar proper): URL -- English translation by Sherif el-Sabban, Temple Festival Calendars of Ancient Egypt, Liverpool, 2002, pp. 17-19 (part of the introductory speech by the King and his court the calendar proper) -- French translation - of the calendar only - by Auguste Mariette, Karnak. [11] In an act of piety that also reinforced his legitimacy, Ramses IV saw to the compilation of a long papyrus in which the deceased Ramses III confirmed the temple holdings throughout Egypt Ramses III had provided the largest benefactions to the Theban temples, in terms of donations of both land and personnel. [7] Thutmose III Thutmose III smiting his Asian foes, detail of a limestone relief from the Temple of Amon at Karnak, Egypt, 15th century bce. [7] Colossi of Memnon The Colossi of Memnon, stone statues of Amenhotep III, near Thebes, Egypt, 14th century bce. [7] Nefertari Wall painting of Queen Nefertari from her tomb in the Valley of the Queens, Thebes, Egypt, 13th century bce. [7] The Temple of Queen Hatshepsut at Dayr al-Baḥrī, Thebes, Egypt, 15th century bce. [7] Thutmose IV Gray granite sculpture of Thutmose IV, Egypt, 15th century bce. [7] To judge from his mummy and less formal representations of him from Amarna, he was obese when, in his 38th regnal year, he died and was succeeded by his son Amenhotep IV (ruled 1353-36 bce ), the most controversial of all the kings of Egypt. [7] The main line of Hyksos was acknowledged throughout Egypt and may have been recognized as overlords in Palestine, but they tolerated other lines of kings, both those of the 17th dynasty and the various minor Hyksos who are termed the 16th dynasty. [7] Between the reign of Akhenaton and the end of the 18th dynasty, Egypt lost control of much territory in Syria. [7] During the long reign of Ramses II (1279-13 bce ), there was a prodigious amount of building, ranging from religious edifices throughout Egypt and Nubia to a new cosmopolitan capital, Pi Ramesse, in the eastern delta his cartouches were carved ubiquitously, often on earlier monuments. [7] Merneptah’s son Seti II (ruled 1204-1198 bce ) had to face a usurper, Amenmeses, who rebelled in Nubia and was accepted in Upper Egypt. [7]

Under Amenhotep II, Asian gods are found in Egypt: Astarte and Resheph became revered for their reputed potency in warfare, and Astarte was honoured also in connection with medicine, love, and fertility. [7] Amenhotep I Limestone sculpture of Amenhotep I, Egypt, c. 1500 bce. [7] Sesostris I Sesostris I, detail of a limestone statue, Egypt, c. 1900 bce. [7]

Meshwesh prisoners of war, branded with the king’s name, were settled in military camps in Egypt, and in later centuries their descendants became politically important because of their ethnic cohesiveness and their military role. [7]

Abydos, the great sanctuary of the funerary god Osiris, was one of ancient Egypt's most sacred places. [9] These funerary texts were a necessary part of the funerary equipment of the ancient Egyptians. [8] The ancient Egyptian empire during the rule of Thutmose III (1479-26 bce ). [7]

Textual Sources for the History of the Middle Nile Region between the Eighth Century BC and the Sixth Century AD, vol. III, Bergen, 1998, pp. 1121-1123 -- Hieroglyphic text in WinGlyph notation, transcription, English translation (by Griffith) and commentary in a posting of Michael Tilgner to AEL on May 17, 1998: URL (PDF file) Added to this post: A photograph of the hieroglyphic inscription & A drawing of the hieroglyphic text from: F. Ll. [11] The Mendes Stela (CG 22181) (27/7/12) date: reign of Ptolemy II Philadelphus -- Drawing of the lunette (with inscriptions) in: Unijournal. [11] CATALOGUE DESCRIPTION A funerary stela, on which, below four lines of inscription, the stela's owner stands at the left before an offering table surmounted by three jars, a trussed fowl, a khepesh-leg, and a leek. [24]

This particular stela was carved in honor of a man named Mentuwoser, an official in charge of agricultural and livestock management, at the behest of Senwosret I (ca. 1971-1926 BCE) the king's name appears at the top center, inside the cartouche. [2] Legitimacy and the Book of the Dead in a Stela of Ramesses IV from Abydos, in: L'impero ramesside. [11] The finely carved hieroglyphics taking up more than half the surface of Mentuwoser's stela include lists of his good works and accomplishments, as well as prayers intended to guide him in the afterlife and give him access to the festival of Osiris. [2] The stela records how the festivities were celebrated in four main parts. [3]

In particular as people from all over Egypt built chapels with stelae at Abydos, we often cannot even tell if a stela is from such a chapel or from a tomb chapel. [19] While these look basically identical to small offering chapels associated with tombs of the period (at Abydos and elsewhere) there are no tombs here - they could be built by people buried at sites elsewhere in Egypt. [19]

Stelae are stone monuments that were used in many different ways in ancient Egyptian society, including as tombstones, as offerings to gods and as commemorative monuments. [13] Egyptian stela of Sehetepibre and others (Illustration) - Ancient History Encyclopedia Egyptian stela of Sehetepibre and others Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin On this sandstone stela, there are 10 lines of hieroglyphs inside the border line. [25] Emily Teeter, "Egyptian Art," Museum Studies: Ancient Art at The Art Institute of Chicago, vol. 20, no. 1 (1994), pp. 19-20 (ill.), no. 3. [26]

Geoff Emberling and Emily Teeter, "The First Expedition of the Oriental Institute, 1919-1920," in Pioneers to the Past: American Archaeologists in the Middle East 1919-1920, ed. Geoff Emberling, Oriental Institute Museum Publications 30 (Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 2010), pp. 47-48, fig. 4.17. [26] Egyptians' perceptions of the world change in the Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms I hope that is evident in the various objects that we discuss in the book and exhibition. [14] The great pyramids were built in the Old Kingdom, and many of the household name pharaohs, like Ramesses, Hatshepsut and Tutankhamun reigned in the New Kingdom. [27]

One of the most famous documents from ancient Egypt on the artistic process is a funerary stele now in the collection of the Louvre, created by the artist Irtisen for his own tomb. [14]

RANGERET UDVALGTE KILDER(27 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)


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The Evolution of Funerary Practices in Ancient Egypt

Existence in all but a few exceptionally rare cases, justification of the state of being is the cornerstone of human culture. The need to uncover meaning in life as well as death has therefore become a timeless desire of man, one which the Ancient Egyptians held to the highest esteem. This civilization and their need to comprehend this life as well as the next led to the creation of an incredibly complex web of religion, woven together by a myriad of gods, goddesses, myths, and rituals. The steadily evolving faith, which began in Pre-dynastic times as fragmentary and varied beliefs and traditions, transformed into a state religion that sustained Egyptian culture through its incredible span of history. While the increasing complexity of the Egyptian belief system can be traced through several aspects of their religion, funerary ideology perhaps best displayed the progressing thought put into existence and the afterlife. It is within the architecture, texts, and ideas of these funerary practices, that one can see the incredible intricacy of an evolving spiritual world, one that would credit the Egyptians as being “more religious than any other people.[1]”

The genesis of funerary rights coincides with the dawning of Egyptian civilization a time before written records, intense social stratification, and a unified nation. In this Pre-dynastic period, archaeological evidence reveals that even within the simplest society, there was a belief in the divine that called for particular care of the deceased. By the Neolithic era, there is an almost “standardized” practice of burial. The graves, which usually consisted of oval pits, contained a body that would be oriented on its left side, with the head towards the south, facing west. Also, with the settling of populations and the rise of a material culture, grave goods, such as jewelry, pots, slate palettes, and stone tools, became a commonality.

As time progressed, so did the cultural and social complexity of the Ancient Egyptians. With the nearing of a unified nation and the stratification it consequently impress upon society, funerary practices had to be adapted to the more demanding necessities that allowed an individual to attain an afterlife. The early Pre-Dynastic saw the rise of the Naqada Period, whose Amratian and Badarian cultures still buried the majority of their dead simply. With the former although a minority of burials were much larger, containing coffins and far more grave goods, although these goods do not yet seem to have had hierarchical implications. It is not until Naqada II that social stratification is reflected in death. It is at this time that the first wrapped bodies are discovered, along with increasing mass burials and varied graves, ranging from simple pits to partitioned mud-brick enclosures. By the end of Naqada III, there is the appearance of “royal” burials that included multiple roomed tombs equipped with pottery and other elite goods.

The emergence of an Egyptian state at ca.3200 B.C.E brought about yet another major change in traditional funerary practices. With the founding of an unshakable authority -the pharaohnic institution- monumental architecture such as elaborate tombs and mortuary complexes arose at sites like Abydos. The idea of a mortuary cult also began to take hold even in the lowest of classes, who had their own simple cemeteries in contrast to the superstructures constructed for government officials and others of higher status. The glorification of funerary complexes only amplified with the commencement of the Old Kingdom. It was during this period that the mastaba tombs, which were enclosed burial chambers led to by a vertical shaft, quickly gave way to perhaps the hallmark of Ancient Egypt the pyramid.

As the brainchild of King Djoser’s vizier, Imhotep, the pyramid became a major catalyst of change. At first built as a stepped structure, it achieved its perfected state during the Fourth Dynasty. The grandeur of the innovative architecture not only served as a proper resting place for the pharaoh, but also symbolized the solidity and strength of the Egyptian state. Furthermore, it brought change to the funerary traditions of the remainder of society. Royals, officials, and priests, who were still being buried in mastaba tombs, wished to be buried near their king’s funerary complex with the hopes of maintaining a relationship with him in death. This wish was manifested as well in the royal funerary cult, whose numbers surged during this period.

During the early Fifth Dynasty there came a break from pyramid building. Instead, Sun-temples that revered the God Ra became the sought after resting place of the king. While constructed was fairly different from the pyramid complex, the sun temples still retained the traditions of receiving tribute, harboring a vast array of goods for the departed, and serving as a center of cult worship. Nevertheless, the phase was short lived. By the close of the dynasty, pyramid construction had begun to reappear and again proved to stoke the fires of change. With the introduction of the Pyramid texts, the earliest religious compositions know from Ancient Egypt, the foundation was laid for the cult of Osiris and the development of the concepts and representations of the afterlife.

The decentralization of power during the First Intermediate Period featured a vast array of funerary innovations. Mummy masks were incorporated as well as Coffin Texts, which were found mainly among provincial society. In addition to the new elements of burials, the mastaba tomb itself underwent re-invention. Family groups were often buried in multi-chambered tombs and their status in said family was made visible by means of the burial.

As control was restored and the Middle Kingdom steadily progressed, the cult of Osiris achieved its height in popularity. Tombs and monuments built by the pharaohs of the Middle Kingdom dynasties revered this God of the Necropolis, and with the rapid growth of the cult came the �mocratization of the afterlife.’ For the first time in Egypt’s religious history, the same funerary privileges were available to both royal and common. Another link between the social classes was established with the idea of the ba, or spiritual force, which was once believed to only exist within the king.

On a more material basis, the mortuary complexes exceeded those of the past in mastery and skill, becoming larger and more beautiful, with added elements such as terraced ambulatories and galleries. The tombs were still equipped with lavish goods, but now also held shabti and paddle dolls, both of which were not seen before this period.

Cartonnage masks were now also a commonality, while the act of mummification itself was increasing, but not yet becoming overly effective.

By the Seventeenth Dynasty, the wealth of tombs had been drastically curtailed, although traditions such as the mass elite burials near royal tombs remained. The location of these burials differed as well. Instead of a prominent cemetery, most royals were buried in the Valley of the Kings in rock cut tombs. But with the rise of the Eighteenth Dynasty and the beginnings of the Amarna Period, funerary culture was again driven by change.

Ideologically, Akhenaten, the tenth ruler of the Eighteenth Dynasty undertook a religious revolution, altering the state religion, mode of worship, and all components of burial architecture. Kings themselves became more closely associated with the gods. Their tombs were more than a lasting glorification of their life’s achievements, and depicted the gods as much as the king himself. Within the burial chambers, inscribed texts were written in a more everyday language, although the line between official and vernacular languages failed to disappear. The tomb itself was although no longer seen as a final resting place. Instead, they served only as a place where the ba went to rest at night otherwise, the spirit of the dead lived on earth. Even with this major ideological change, funerary rites and tribute continued.


Funerary Stela - History

Other famous tombs are those at Petra, the
ancient rock city in what is now Jordan. The hills here are honeycombed with
tombs cut into rock.

Many large tombs were built in ancient Asia Minor. The most notable was that of
King Mausolos, from whose name came the word “mausoleum”.

Originally graves in the 1700s also contained footstones to demarcate the foot end of
the grave. Footstones were rarely carved with more than the deceased's initials and
year of death, and many cemeteries and churchyards have removed them to make
cutting the grass easier. Note however that in many UK cemeteries the principal, and
indeed only, marker is placed at the foot of the grave.

Graves and any related memorials are a focus for mourning and remembrance. Tit
the names of loved one’s are placed on the marker to chronicle their deaths. Since
gravestones and a plot in a cemetery or churchyard cost money, they are also a
symbol of wealth or prominence in a community. Some gravestones were even
commissioned and erected to their own memory by people who were still living, as a
testament to their wealth and status. In a Christian context, the very wealthy often
erected elaborate memorials within churches rather than having simply external
gravestones.


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